Aristotle

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हुपून वचात: दिशा-नियंत्रण, सोद

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Bust of Aristotle. Marble, Roman copy after a Greek bronze original by Lysippos from 330 BC; the alabaster mantle is a modern addition.
School of Aristotle in Mieza, Macedonia, Greece)

Aeristtottol

(zolm i.So.Po. 384, sttagira-thres prant – gris; mornnH i.So.Po. 322, konsis-yubia zumvo - gris). Ek vhodd grik totvovet'to. Mesiddoniacho rajvoiz nikomakas hacho put. Sttajira xarant zolmol'lean haka sttajiraitt oxem-i mhonnttat. I.So.Po. Sumar 367 vorsa xikxonnakhatir aethens hangachea plettochea okademint paulo ani 347 to plettok mornn yeysor thoim raulo. Hanga tannem aplem xikxonn borebhoxen ghetlem ani uprant to aettoniosocho raza hormiyos hachea dorbarant tin-char vorsam khatir raulo. Te uprant mesiddoniacho raza filip hachea apounnea voilean rajkumvor olekzhanddor (olekzhanddor do grett) hacho xikxok mhunn i.So.Po. 342 te 335 oxim sat vorsam kam' kelem. Olekzhanddor raza zaun udenteutten ghureo ghalunk bhair sorlea iprant aeristtottol aethensak ailo ani laisiyom' namvachem aplem svotontr videapitth nirmilem. Hea videapitthant tannem 12-13 vorsam xikxonn dile ani videapitthacho her vauroi kelo. Xixeamvangodda bagent paseo marit xikoupache tache podhdotik lagun tachea ponthak peripettettik (paseo marpi) ponth oxem namv mell'llem. Olekzhanddorchea mornna uprant olekzhanddorache rajki dusman taka sompoitole hea bhoyan to yubia prantantlea konsis gamvant gelo. Moronn yeysor to thoinch raulo. Nirmonni:

aeristtottol ho torkoxudhd podhdotin totvoginean boroitalo. Pletto ani ddemokritts hanchea totvogineanancher tannem aplem totvoginean adaril'lem ani tanchea totvogineamnatolem unneponn tannem svotachea totvogineanantlean bhorun kaddlem. Tannom xenkddeamni gronth boroile.Tatuntole fokot sumar 1-4 aiz meren urleat. Choddxi gronthnirmonni tannem laisiyom' videapitthant astona keli. Tachem totvoginean panch mukhel vixeantlean vivrsunk yeta.

1.Torkoxastr ani gineanomimamsa [Logic & Epistemology]:[बदल]

sot ginean mellouchea khatir aeristtottol indriy somvedon ani budhd hea donuy gozalinchi goroz asa oxem mantat.Vicharanchem unneponn aslear somvedona kudd'ddi zata ani somvedonachem unneponn aslear vichar opexi thartat. Gineanache prokrient budhd ani onnbhou hankam zai ti suvat divn aeristtottolan somvedona ani sonklpona hankam ekttham-i haddleant. Kosli-i vost zoxi apleak dista te podhdotin tittem ginean ani devachea sorzonoxil monak ti zoxi dista tachem ginean oxe gineanache don zhot aeristtottolchea totvogineanant distat. Somvaky (Syllogism) ani vigmon (Induction) he hea don vichar zhotanche protinidhi zaun asata.

Aeristtottolan torkoxastrachi bunead soglleant poilim ghali. Soglleant poilim tannem torkoxastracho xastroxudhd niall kelo. Torkoxastracher tannem so pustokam boroilim. Torkoxastr hem xastri-i sonxodhonachem sadhon asa oxem to mantalo. Xastri-i sot oprihary svorupachem asta. Aeristtottolachea motan xastri-i sot mhollear ‘ jem asa tacheaporos jem anik vegllem asunk xokta tem ’ vichar korop mhollear onuman kaddop. Onumanam nixchevachea svorupachim astat. Tim bhaxeurovim mukhar ghaltokoch tankam vidhanam mhonnttat. Hea vidhananchem svorup, tanche prokar, tanche ekamekankoddenoche sombond hoch aeristtottolchea torkoxastracho mukhel vixoi asa. Somvaky hea onumanprokaravixim soglleant poilim aeristtottolan boroun dourolam. Somvakeant sadhy vidhan ani pokx vidhan hea don adar vidhanam voilean novea nixkorxa meren yeunk zata. Somvakeant sorvosadaronnoponnakoddlean khaxeleponnakodden paunk zata. Somvakeam nimnni kaim mullavea svoimsidhd (Self Evident) soteancher adaril'lim astat. Him soteam bhitorlea progoneeurovim tomzotat. Khorem xastri-i ginean mhollear onivary soteanchi rochnnuk asa ani kaim soteam somvakeamvorovim somzotat zalear kaim bhitorlea progoneeurovim holmotat.

2.Totvomimamsa [Metaphysics]:[बदल]

totvomimamsek aeristtottolan mull totvoginean oxem mhollam. Aeristtottolachi totvomimamsa plettochea totvomimamsechi sudaril'li aurit'ti oxem mhonnttat.Aeristtottolan totvomimamsechea mollar drouy ani akar sidhdant mukhar dourolo. Hea sidhdantapromann drouy ani akar ekttham-i yeup mhollear vost toyar zaup. Drouy ani akar hankam fokot vicharaninch veglle korunk zata; protyokxant te ekttham-i astat. Devo soddlear drouyoroit akar asunkuch xokna. Akar mhollear vostuchem fokot rup va bhaili rochnnuk nhoi; droveak bandun douropi ti ek dharnnaxkt.Drouy ani akar sapekx asat. Akar mhollear vostuchem proyozon va songhtton. Ekacho akar hem dusreachem drouy asta. Dekhik- rukhache nodren bi drouy asta zalear fuddlea udrogotiche nodren bi akar ani rukh drouy tharta. Vostunchem vingddoponn va veglleponn akarak lagun tharta, droveak lagun nhoi. Drouy hem mullant akarohin ani nirgunn asta. Akar mhollear prokttota. Drouy mhollear oprokottota va sombhauyota. Bodlot vochpi drouy sodanch vingodd vingodd akar gheta. Oxe toren aeristtottolan porivrtonacho prosn soddoila. Bodol yantrik nhoi tor proyozonatmok asta. Aeristtottolachi karonn-kolpona veapok ani arvil'lea karonn kolponeporos veglli asa. Vostuche nirmonne khatir upadan (Matter), nimit't, akarik ani nimannem oxa char karnnanchi goroz aeristtottolan dakhoilea. Him char karnnam akar ani drouy hea don nimnnea totvanchea rupan urtat. Aeristtottoloche nodren somvsar mhollear droveanchi uncholea ani uncholea akaram'modim sodanch choddot vochpachi prokria. Ten'na somvsar mhollear ek unch ani unch vochpi udrogoticho krom'. He udrogotiche tengxer devo va drouyoroit akar asta zalear mullant akaroviroit drouy asta. Him donuy tonkam mhollear omurtikoronn. Protyokx ostitvant asta to drouy ani akaran bharil'lo monis. Devo mhollear srixttichi tarkik boska (pu). To xudhd akar asa, ani somvsaranchem nimit't, akarik ani nimannem karonn asa. Kallkromache nodrentoch nhoi, tor vicharanche nodren to poilo tharta.

3. Nitixastr ani rajyoxastr [Ethics & Politics]:[बदल]

aeristtottolchea motan nitixastr ani rajyoxastr hancho samko lagincho sombond asta. Monis ho somaz priy pranni asa ani rajy mhollear monis rupi droveacho akar asta. Monis somazacho ek ghottok axil'lean to somaza poros vegllo raun aplem sukh svotontroponnan mellounk xokna. Nitixastr hi rajyoxastrachich ek xakha asa. Monxachea noitik achronnak rajeaxivai ostitv ani puraiponn yeunk xokna. Rajy hem monxak sukh divpachem ek sadhon zaun asa. Aeristtottolchea motan dorek monis apsukoponnan aplem boreponn zauchem mhunn yotn korta. Ten'na monis apsukoponnan zachi itsa dhorta, jem sadhpacho yotn korta tatunt tachem boreponn asta. Hea boreponnak aeristtottol ‘ yuddaimonia ’ (Eudaimonia) oxem mhonntta. Rajeant raun boreponnant vanttekar zaun monis aplem boreponn sadhta. Jinnentleo mullaveo gorzo bhagouchea khatir monis ekttham-i yeun kuttumb zata. Kuttumbam ekttham-i yeun fuddem tanchem rajy ghoddtta. Rajeant jinnecheo gorzo bhagtatoch punn bori jinn, monxache boudhdik ani noitik sodgunn hanchi udrogot zaunk xoktoli, oxem jivit zogpoi xoky zata. Kuttumb sonkhea noxtt korun ticho vaur rajean svota korcho, rajyokrtea vorgantlea monxanchi khajgi malomt'ta aschi nhoi him plettochim motam taka many nat. Kitlexech monis sobhavantleanoch gulam' astat. Tanchi mansik kuvt sokoilea pamvddeavoili asta, hea motauylean aeristtottolan gulamogiri podhdotik fattboll dil'lem. Sobond rajeachem sadaronn boreponn korpi sorkar borem ani svotachea va svotachea vorgantlea monxanchem boreponn korunk polloupi lokamni choloil'lem sorkar vaitt va vikrit rajeant kitle zann sot'tadhix asta hachea voilean aeristtottolan rajyosonghottonanche vantte keleat. Ekuch sot'tadhix astona tannem sot'techo upeg rajeachea borponnak lagun kelear ti rajexai (Monarchy). Rajexayechi vikriti mhollear koslench bondhon naxil'lem xason (Tyranny). Kaim lokanchea hatant sot'ta asop mhollear umrauxai (Aristocracy) punn tichi vikriti mhollear kaim lokanchea bebond tontran cholpi xason (Oligarchy). Kitleaxach zannanchea hatant sot'ta asop mhollear tem rajy gonnrajy (Polity). Tachi vikriti mhollear lokxai (Democracy). Aplea rajyoxastrant nagrikanchea xikxonnachoi vichar tannem boroun dourola.

4. Podarthovigonean ani mansoxastr [Physics and Psychology]:[बदल]

aeristtottol atmeachea zagear axil'lea vicharoxktiche sokriy ani nixkri-i oxe don vantto korta.Sokriy vicharoxktiurovim khoinchyai gozalichem ginean madhyomahogor protyokx melltta. Nixkri-i vicharoxkt sokriy vicharoxktichem sadhon asta. Sokriy budhd omor asta. Atmo ho kuddichoch ek avixkar (manifestation) oxem tachem mot asa. Atmeacho ani jivacho obheas mhollear bhoutik jinnecho obheas. Soim' sodanch khoincheatori dhyeyautten vatt kaddit asa ani ti ek udrogot zait vochpi prokria asa oxem tannem aplea borpantlean mukhar manddlem. Udrogoticheo heo ovstha spoxtt korop ho aeristtottolchea podarthovigoneanacho mukhel het asa.

Survek kudd ani atmo hanchea modim forok korpi aeristtottol fuddem atmo ani kudd heo don lagincheo ani atmo ho kuddicho akar oxem manunk laglo.

5. Soudryoxastr [Aesthetics][बदल]

hea vixeacher aeristtottolan ‘ poettika ’ hem svotontr pustok boroilam. Hea pustokant kolechim mullavim totvam, tanchom pody, natty hancheavorovim zaupi avixkar hacho tannem niall kela. Utram ani tal hanchea vorvim kauy toyar zata. Aeristtottolachea motan kaveacho zolm' doivi xoktint na. To monxache onukoronn korpache zolmozat prourit'tintlean ani borea onnbhovachea boudhdik khoxyent asta. Aeristtottolchea kauyoxastrant soundryovadi totvogineanacho obheas ani sovistor niall sampddotta.

Polleiat[बदल]

Aristotle

ह्या विषयावयर देवनागारींत बरयिल्लें पान वाच : अॅरिस्टॉटल
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