Indiecheo Rail Marog

विकिपीडिया कडल्यान
हुपून वचात: दिशा-नियंत्रण, सोद

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Indian Railway[बदल]

India's first train ran between Bombay and Thane
Two historical steam engines at water refilling station at Agra station
Eastern end of longest platform in Kollam Junction railway station in India. This is the world's second longest railway platform
The B.B. & C.I. Railway Head Offices, 1905


Bharti-i relve : relve hem bhartantole yeradarichem mukhel sadhon. Bhartantolo poilo relvemarg mumboi te tthannem hanche modim 16 epril 1853 disa suru zalo ani tachi lambai sumar 34 kimi. Axil'li . Poile gaddyek 14 ddobe ani 3 injinam zoddl'lim. 1854 – 60 hea kallant atth relve kompneo sthapon zal'leo. (1) istt inddiyon relve (2) grett inddiyon peninsula relve (3) modras relve (4) bam'mbe borodda ondd sonttrol inddia relve (5) sindia relve (6) isttorn bongol isttorn (7) sauth inddiyon relve (8) kolokt'ta ondd sauth relve. 1869 – 81 hea kallant relve kompneamni ani brittix kompneamni mellun sumar 14920 kimi. Meren gezache relvemarg bandle. I.So. 1881-1900 hea kallant bongol sonttrol relve (1881), rohilokhondd ondd kumaum relve (1882), sodrn morattha relve (1882), inddiyon middlondd relve (1885), bongal – nagpur relve (1887), asam' – bengal relve (1892) ani borma relve (1897) heo kompneo sthapon zaleo. Hea kallant vott'tt 33 relve kompneo 98 marg choloitaleo. 1900 ujvaddotta mhollear relvemarganchi vott'tt lambai 39,603 kimi. Axil'li. 1905 vorsa relve monddllachi sthapna zali. 1908 mhollear hea meddllachi punrrochonnuk keli. Hea kallant sorkaran sumar 16,000 kima. Lambayeche fantte ani purounn relvemarg bandle. 1915 mhollear relvemargachi lambai sumar 56,456 kimi. Itli zali. Poilea mhazhuzant ani tea uprantchea kallant (1914 – 21) bharti-i relve veustha moddkollik aili. Tekhatir loxkori nodren mhotvache oxe relvemarg bandle. Taka lagun relvemargachi vott'tt labam-i 58776 kimi. Meren pauli.

Nouhembor 1920 vorsa sor hache odhyokxotayekhal nemil'le somitin kel'lea choddxo xifaroxi sorkaran apnnail'leo. 1925 vorsa sorkaran istt inddiyon ani grett inddiyon peninsula he kompnichi veustha apnnakodden ghetli. Taka lagun choddxa bharti-i lokank relvent rojgar mellunk laglo ani provaxanchea sukh-soyinkhatir chodd lokx dilem. 1924 vorsa relve orthoveustha veglli korpachea prostavak monzuri dili.


I.So. 1925-30 hea kallant relvechi orthik sthiti kaim promannant sudaroli sudaroli. Hea panch vorsam'modim xilki utpon'n ru.5264 kotti. Hea kallant mumboi ani chen'ni hea vattharant vijechea gaddeo suru zaleo. 1929 -30t relvemargachi lambai 66,758 kimi. Axil'li.

Teuporantchea 1931 – 35 kallantolo orthik mondicho bharti-i relveche vaitt porinnam' zalo. Dusrea mhazhuzachea purvokallant relveche orthik sthitint sudaronna zali. 1937 vorsa bhartaposun brohmodex vegllo zalo. Ten'na vott'tt relvemarganchi lambai 3200 kimi.No unni zali. 1939t bharti-i relvemargachi lambai 65850 kimi. Axil'li. Dusrea mhazhuzachea kallant bharti-i relve poilea mhazhuzachea manan chodd susjz asil'li. Zhuza sahity vhorpakhatir khub promannant vaginnincho vapor zalo. Taka lagun khajgi upegakhatir khubuch thoddeo vaginni upolbdh axil'leo. 1942 to zhuz yeradar monddoll sthapon kelem. Sumar 6500 kimi. Lambayeche relvemarg kaddun mesopottemia ani irak hea dexant dhaddle. 1943 – 44 chea bonglantlea duxkallak lagun relvemonddollamukhar pench nirnann zalo. Loxkori ani nagri lokamvangodda dukllachea vattharant on'nodhany dhaddpachi zobabodari relvecher aili. Tea kallant relven sodcheporos dor mhoineak sorasori don kottimporos chodd provaxanchi yeradari keli.

Bhartache suttkeuporant dexache fallnnek lagun bharti-i relvechi-i vibhagonni zali. Loxkori nodren mhotvache oxe relvemarg mhollear bongol asam' relvecho choddso bhag ani north vesttorn relvecho 4/5 bhog pakistanakodden gelo. Hea vellar relve kormochareachem stholantororuy vhodd promannant zalem. Pakistanantlean sumar 104000 kormochari bhartant aile. Zalear bhartantleam' sumar 83,000 kormochari pakistanant gele. Rajki-i svatontry mellttokoch bharti-i relvek zaitea oddchonnink tondd divchem poddlem. Adlim somsthanam bharti-i songhrajeant vilin zatkoch bharot sorkarachea relvechi margolambai 12,096 kimi. No vaddli. Hea somsthananche relvemarg vegvegllea prokaranche ani vegvegllea akaromananche axil'lem.

31 march 1978 disa vott'tt relve veusthanchi nnou porimonddollamni vibhagonni keli. Hea porimonddollanchi namvam tachea mukhealoyachem tthikann ani margolambai (kimi.) oxi asat – modhy (mumboi – boribondor – vhi.Tti; 6815), udent (kolokt'ta; 4291), ut'tor (novi dil'li; 10987) ixany sima ut't-udent (gorkhopur 5163) ixany sima (mali gamv - gouhati; 3763), dokxinn (chen'ni; 6756), dokxinn modhy (sikondorabad; 7204), ogney va dokxinn udent (kolokt'ta; 7115), ani ostont (mumboi-chorchogett 9889).


Bharti-i relveveustha hi axiantoli soglleant vhodd ani somvsarantoli panchvea kromankachi. Suttkeuporant ticheant zaiti udrogot zaun 31 march 1988 disa 61,976 kimi. Zali. Bhartant brodd gez, mittor gez ani nero gez he relvemargochea rundayeche tin prokar vaprant asat. 1972 saun vafechea relve injinazagear vidyut ani ddijhel injinam ailim. Toxench sonket nidrxon ani dursondexouhon hanchea odyoyautikoronnant ani sudaronnent borich progti zali. Uprant songnnokachem yug relventuy paulem. Novi dil'li, mumboi, kolokt'tachean yeupi gaddeanchea arkxonnakhatir songnnokacho upeg korunk lagle. Tebhair vahnachem vitronn ani niyontronn hanchekhatir toxench dor eke vagnnichea ani provasi ddobeachea stholantoracho topxil douropakhatir songnnokacho vapor kortat.

Sahity samgriche babtint bharti-i relve svoimpurnnoteche nodren ul'lekh korpasaroki progti kel'li asa. 1951 -52 to yojnabdhd vikasokaryokromache survek bharti-i relve 23% sahity samugri ayat kortali. 1985 – 86 mhollear he ayatichem promann 8.3% meren unnem zalem. Ponchoursuki yeuzonnentuy relvechea vikasakhatir tortud vaddoili. Bharti-i relvechea proxasonachi ani veusthaponachi zobabodari relve rajmontreache dekhrekhikhala relve monddoll polloita. Hea monddllant relve montraloyantolo podsidhd mukhel sochiv ho odhyokx, ek orthi ayukt ani panch vangddi hancho aspavo asta. Vott'tt relve veustha nnou porimonddollamni vibhagil'li asun dor eka porimonddollacho ek mohaveusthapok asta ani to relvechem kary, samball ani orthik gozali he nodren relve monddllak zobabodar asta. Relve proxason ani zonta hancheantlea porspor sohkarakhatir raxttri-i relve upeg korteanchi sol'lagar somiti, porimonddolli-i relve upegokrteanchi somiti bi vegvelleo somiteo kam' korta.

1924-25 vorsasaun relvechi orthoveustha sorkarachea sorvosadaronn utpon'nacho babimsaun veglli keli. Relvecho svatacho nidhi ani lekha veustha asun somsdek relvechem venglle odmasoptrok sthapon kortat.


Bharti-i relve injinachem utpadon chit'toronzonantlea (ostont bongal) chit'toronzon lokomottivh vorks hea (ut'tor prodex) hangachea ddijhel lokomottivh vorks hea karkhaneamni kortat. Te uprant mukhel margauylea vidyut ani ddijhel drovi-i xotting injinachem utpadon korunk lagle. Heach kallant mittor gezauyolim choddxim vafechim injinam ttatta injiniyoring ondd lokomottivh kompnin toyar kelim. Chit'toronzon karkhaneant ekdix vidyot provahacher cholpi poilem injin 1961- 62t ani poilem ddizhol injin drovi-i xontting injin 1967-68t toyar kel'lem. Mukhel margauyolem ddijhel vidyut. Injin toxench zodd kamakhatir vaprotolim xontting injinam varannosi hanganchea karkhaneant toyar kortat. Heach karkhaneant 1963 – 64 vorsa brodd gez injinachea ani 1968 – 69 vorsa mittor gez injinachea utpadonak survat zali. Te uprant mat dexant ddijhel vidyut injinam ayat kelim nat. Provasi sevekhatir lagpi ddobeanchem choddxem utpadon perambun (tomillonaddu) hangachea inttigrol koch fekttori hea karkhaneant zata. Hea utpadonak purok oxem utpadon bharot orth muvhors li. Ani jesps he bhouxik mollauyole upkrom' kortat ani he tin karkhane mellun bharti-i relvechi choddxi goroz bhagoitat. Ddobeanchim chakam ani tankam zoddpi as toyar korpakhatir 1984 vorsa bengalor hanga karkhano sthapon zalo. 1988 vorsa thoim poilea ddobeachi nirmiti zali. Bhartantlean ttanzhania, toivan, yugandda, brohmodex, vhiettonan, filipins adi dexank relve provasi ddobe nireat keleat. Bharti-i relvechi vaginnichi goroz bhouxik ani khasgi mollauyole karkhane mellun bhagoitat. Tin relve durusti kormoxalla hea karkhaneachea utpadogonak purok oxem utpadon kortat.

Relvechea vaurachea vegvegllea gozalimvixinchem somsodhon ani tontrik vikasachi zobabodari axil'lem risrch ddizhains ondd sttonddrddos ergonaijheson hi veglli somstha asa. Hi somstha relve monddoll, porimonddoli-i relve veustha, utpadok karkhane ani udyeg toxench vepar hankam sol'lo divpachem kam' korta. Vahnam relvemarg pul ani her bandkamam toxench relve vaprota ti sahityosamgri hatunt kromakroman promanni koronn ho he somsthecho mukhel ud'dex asa. Toxench relvechea vaurachea sogllea mollauyolem sonxodhon hatant gheup hem he somsthechem dusrem mhotvachem kary.


Redd inddia tteknikol ondd ikonomik sorvhises ani inddiyon relves konsttrokxon kompni heo bhouxik mollauyleo bharti-i relvecheo don kompneo asun teo rolvemarg tontrividea ani relve proklpachi om'molobozaunni korop he vixincheo uchch.Patlleuyleo sol'lagar seva ditat. Poili kompni yeradari tontrovidyek sogllea babimsombondincheo sol'lagar seva dita, zalear dusri bhartant ani pordexant purai relve proklpanchi ubaronni korpachem kam' korta. Hea kompneamni aljeria, zhaire, ghana, filipins, naijeriyon toxench soudi orebia, irak, zoin adi modhy udent dexamni oxem kary kelam.

Yeradari veustha[बदल]

relve porivahonacho mukhel ud'dex mhollear mhal ani provasi hankam rokddea rokddo, surkxitoponnan ani kifaitoxiroponnan hadd vhor kopor asta ani hi zobabodari relvechea poricholon ani vannijy hea don vibhagamni vibhagil'li asta. Vahnam (vaginni ani ddobe) ani injinam hea sadhnancho choddant chodd karyokxomotayen upeg korun mhal ani provasi yeradaricho pamvddo vaddoup hi poricholon vibhagachi zobabodari asta. Zalear vannijy vibhag relvechea giraikankodden sombond dourun tanche magnnepromann yeradar seva upolbdh korun divp ani tacheposun favo tem utpon'n melloupakhatir giraikachi kxomtai ani relvechea porivhonakhatir zaupi khorch hea dogamycho mell ghalun yeradariche dor tharaup hacher kendrit kel'le astat. Voir sanglea ti poricholonachi zobabodari purai korpakhatir yojnabd'd karyopronnali hi voktoxiroponnan ani ochukoponnan yoxsvi korpachi karyokxomotai gorjechi asta. Toxench yeradariche magnnent zaupi vadd lokxant gheun techpromann yeradarichi tank vaddoupachi yeuzonn ankhop chodd gorjechem asta.


Aggaddi hem zori porichonachem ekok aslem tori tika zoddil'leo zaiteo vaginni asta. Jeo sodanch ek sthankaposun ayil'leo nastat ani ekechokodden vochpi-i nastat. Oxa xenkddeamni va hozaramni vaginniche marg kaim ontrakhatir ekttham-i astat. Zalear boreach ontrakhatir vegvegolle astat. Taka lagun relve porivhon veusthent zaitea zagear doreke aggaddoyek zoddil'leo vaginni venchun teo vegvegllea dixank vochpi gaddeank zoddcheo poddttat. Zaitefautt ekach koddlean vochpi vaginni chodd aslear tachi ek purai gaddi toyar kortat. Vaginninchi zoddpi ani vegllaupachem kam' hem vellanche ani kottkottichem asta. Jen'na oxo hozaramni vaginni oxe toren venchun porot tea tthikannanchea kromankan tanchi zullounni korchi poddtta, ten'na tea kamankhatir vhodd zullounni adaranchi goroz lagta. Oxe aur sadaronnoponnan 200 te 300 kimi. Ontracher yeujil'le astat.

Relve porivhonantole mhal yeradarichea anik eka khaxeloponnak lagun relve poricholon veusthecher boroch tann poddtta. Relvecheo vaginni gorjepromann dhampil'leo ani ukteo oxo don torancheo astat. Tatuntleo dhampil'leo vaginni dhaneam ani her krixijny mhalachi ani oxe torechea soimik ani manvi orixttamposun rakhnnechi goroz axil'lea vostunchi hadd – vhor korpakhatir vaprotat. Toxench ukte vaginnintlean kollso, min, chuno adi khoniz podarth hadd – vhor kortat. Khoniz mhalan bhoril'leo hozaramni ukteo vaginni eka vixixtt vattharant va diken dhaddil'leo aslear ani tea vattharant oxe vaginnint bhorpasaroko mhal upolbdh naslear teo vaginni thoinchean rikameoch porot dhaddcheo poddttat. Oxi gozal dhampil'lea vaginninchea babtintuy ghoddunk xokta. Oxem toren vaginnink rikame sthitint provas korcho poddtta. Taka lagun relve veusthek orthik nuksan somschem poddtta. Oxench provasi yeradari babtintoi ghoddunk xoktat. Provaxi aggaddeanche sogllech ddobe survatichea sthankasaun nimannea sthankameren vochpi nastat. Taka lagun provaxank khubuch tras zatat. 1940 vorsa saun aggaddeank antorsthanoki-i ddobe zoddpachi protha suru zali ani provaxanchi bori soi zali. Punn oxe torecheo ddobeanchi zoddpi ani vegllaunni korpak khub vell vota. Toxench hi karvai korpakhatir ek khas xotting injin sthankacher sotot dourochem poddtta. Punn hich veustha provaxank chodd bori poddtta.


Mal ani provasi yeradari korpi aggaddeo relve porivhanachea poilea xotkant sadaronnoponnat eka injinan oddop zataleo. Punn 1930 uprant mhalvahok aggaddoyank don injinam laun oddop ani choddavachea margar tisrem injin zoddun dhuklopachi chal suru zali. Vafechea injina zagear vijechim ani ddijhelachim injinam upegant yetkoch ut'tor omerika khonddant 150-200 itleo vaginni zoddil'leo vhodd ujeagaddoyo 5-6 ddizhol injinam laun oddttale. Tatuntolim tin injinam sogllea vaginninchea mukhar ani her injinam 50-60 vaginni uprant zoddttat. Hea sogllea injinamni fokot poileach injinant chalok asta ani to her injinam yantrik sadhnan niyontronnant dourunk xokta. Bharti-i relve veustha oxe torechea poricholonache halim proyog korta. Choddxa dexamni provaxanchi yeradar korpi ujeagacheank atth te dha ddobe zoddil'le astat. Bhartant relve provaxanchi sonkhea khub axil'lean ddijhel va vidyutu injinachea adaran 17-18 ddobeancheo ujeagaddoyo 1970 uprant vochunk lagleo. Sodeachea kallant don injinam vaprun 20-26 ddobe zoddil'leo ani sumar ord kimi. Lambayecheo ujeagaddoyo ostitvant aileat.


Vannijy[बदल]

relve porivhonache vannijyonitichim don tasam asat. Tatuntolo poilo giraikak zai axil'li porivhon seva ayojit korun ti kifaitoxiroponnan vikop ani dusrem, giraikak dil'lem sevecho mobdolo tanchekoddlean vosul korop. Hea donuy kareamni relve porivhonachea sumar deddxem vorsanchea itihasant sadronn tin kall distat. (1) 1830-1910 (2) 1910-60 (3) 1960 uprantocho kall. Hatuntlea poilea kalkhonddant ud'degik kranti ani samrajyoxai hea somvsarik navinyopurnn ghoddnnukank lagun relve porivhonacho vhodd vistar zait gelo. Relve porivhonache vannijyonitichi dusri vott mhollear dor nirdharonn pod'doti. Hi pod'dot kaim sorvomany sidhdantacher adarit asta. Relve porivhon zaitea prokarchea mhalanchi ani vostunchi yeradari korta. Hea malanchem ani vostunchem mol, magnni, akaroman ani svorup paus-vareaposun ani choryeposun rakhonn mellchi he nodren tea sogllea malachem ani vostunchem vorgikoronn kel'lem asta. Toxench 90% poros chodd malachi yeradari puraiponnan vaginnintlean zata astona protyokxant mal yeradariche dor vegvegllea malakhatir, vegvegllea akaromanachea vaginninchea dharkotecher adarit astat.


Orthoveustha ani veusthapon[बदल]

relve porivhonant orthoveustha ani veusthapon hea donoi ghottkancho mhotvacho vatto asa.


Orthoveustha[बदल]

relve porivhon ho somvsarantolaya sogllea dexamni khajgi ud'degodhondo mhonnun suru zalo ani ten'nachean eka xotmanaporosuy chodd kall to ek faidexir ud'degodhondo mhonnun choloilo. Toxench tatunt gunthoil'lea bhanddoulacheruy ud'dezokank bhorpur faido zalo. Punn dusrea mhazhuza uprant chodd koruk 1960 uprant hi poristhiti bodloli ani hatunt nuksan zaukom laglem. Hachim mukhel tin karnnam asat tim oxim – (1) khorchantoli sumarabhair vadd chodd korun 1972-73 (2) her porivhon veusthanche sortikolagun relven vogddail'li uchch doran zaupi malachi yeradari (3) poilea karnnan gorjechi zali punn dusrea karnnan kotthinn zal'li favo titli dorvadd.


Heach kallant choddxa sogllea dexamni relve porivhon veusthanchem raxttriyikoronn zal'lean hea veusthank zaupi nuksan her bhouxik ud'degamvori sorkari bhanddarantlean onudan, ontrim' modot va rinn hea rupan bhorun kaddop zatalem. Tori legit bharti-i relveporivohanant relve porivhon hi ek bhouxik seva hea totvacher zontent ani rajki-i pamvddear lokx kendrit kel'lean ani relve porivhon ho ek ud'degoi asa. Hachekodden add nodor kel'lean bharti-i relve porivhonak fokt orthik nuksanuch somschem poddlemna zalear yontrik ani tontrik nodren ticheant favo ti udrogot zalina.


Veusthapon[बदल]

relve porivhon veusthechi survat chodd korun khajgi kompleamni kel'lean hea ud'degachi veusthapon pod'dot vannijyoprodhan axil'li. Punn unnea-chodd promannant tanche karyopd'doticher chodd korun tontrik babtint tea tea dexantlea sorkarachem niyontronn astalem. Yuropantlea choddxa dexantleo relve porivhon veustha poilea mhazhuzha uprantchea kallant purai toren raxttriyikrit zal'lean tancheo veusthapon pod'doti tea tea dexantlea bhouxik mollauylea her ud'degodhondeache pod'doticher adarit asat. Bhartant 1925 vorsa don relve kompneanchem raxttriyikoronn zal'lem. 1942 vorsa chodd korun bhartantleo soglleo relve veustha purai toren sorkari niyontronnakhala aileo. Toxech relve porivhon ho xasnacho ek mhotvacho bhag mhollear odhikari ani kormochari hanchi proxikxonn veustha. Bharti-i relve veusthent suttkeuporant borich progti zalea. Relve kormochareank yontrik ani tontrik proxikxonn divpakhatir relve porimonddollachea dor eka vibhagant adhunik upkoronnamni susjz axil'li ek proxikxonn somstha ostitvant asa. Toxench odhikareankhatir vegvegllea tontramni proxikxonn divpi okhil bharti-i mollauyleo somstha ani relve veusthaponachem sonklit proxikxonn divpi modhyourti somsthai sthapon keleo asat. Hatunt zaitea vikasonoxil dexantole relve odhikari proxikxonnakhatir yetat. Bhartant razoptrit odhikareankhatir char modhyoyourti proxikxonn somstha asat. Inddin relves insttittyutt ef sivhil injiniyrs, punne hi somstha sthapty obhiyonteank proxikxonn dita. Zalear inddiyon relves insttittyutt ef signol injinioring ondd ttelikmyunikexon, sikondorabad he somsthent sonket ani dursondexouhon vibhagantlea odhikari ani kormochari hankam proxikxonn ditat. Inddiyon relves insttittyutt ef meknikol ondd ilekttrikol injiniyrs, zomlapur he somsthent xikpi umedovar odhikareank yontrik ani vidyut obhiantrikichem proxikxonn ditat. Toxench relve sfatt kolez boddoda he somsthent sogllea razoptrit odhikareank sadaronn sonklit proxikxonn ditat.


Relve porivhonachea xaskis veusthaponachi ruprexa axi asta – dexant soglleant unchelea pamvddeacher relve monddoll asta. Hem monddoll dexantlea relve porimonddollache kamgiricher sadaronn porivekxonn korta ani sogllea mhotvachea gozalimni dhornnatmok nirnnoi gheta. Dor ek relve monddllant sodea panch te atth vibhag asat ani tea tea vibhagantlea relve porivhonachi mukhel zobabodari vibhagi veusthapokacher asta ani techpromann tankam favo te odhikar dil'le astat.


Adhunikikoronn[बदल]

dusrea mhazhuzauporant relve porivhonache tontrovidyent udrogot zali ti survek frams dexant 1951 vorsa tea dexantole raxttriyikrit relve veusthen vidyut xokticher adaril'lea relve porichalonant krantikarok bodol ghoddoun haddle. 25,000 vholtt itlea vhodd vijechea dabacho upeg korun tachea adaran vorak 200 kimi. Vegan dhamvpi provasi ujeagaddoyo chalu keleo. Thoddeach kallant he tontrovidhecho prosar yuropabhair roxia, chin, zopan, bharot adi dexamni zalo. 1964 vorsa zopani raxttri-i relve veusthen ttokio ani osaka hea don mohanogoram'modim 510 kimi. Lambayecho ek arvilo ani purai toren vegllo oso relvemarg bandun provaxi yeradari adhunikikoronnantolo dusro mhotvacho ttoppo gantthlo. Hea relve margacher vorak 210 kimi. Ani sorasori 170 kimi. Vegan eka fattofatt ek oxo vochpi ujeagaddoyo chalu keleo. Hatuntleo ‘zolod gaddeo’ hem ontor tin voram so minttamni zalear, moreadit zolod’ gaddeo ho provas char voram dha minttani purai kortaleo. Hea novea oxa ‘nou hokkaiddo’ relvemarg namvache relve veusthent porivhonachea mollar zaiteo sudaronna ani noveo yeuzonno aspavil'leo. Purai relvemarg zomniposun 3- 4.6 mi. Unchayecher bandil'lo axil'lean vattent her khoinchoi relvemarg va bhumarg yeupachi xokyotai unni asta. Toxench margauyole soglle sonket nidrxonam chalkak tache kuddint vegvegllea ronganche dip yeuzonnen spoxtt dischem ani tannem favo tem veg niyontronn kelemna zalear tem apxinch yontrik yeuzonnen zaupochem oxim tontrik veumstha relve mohamargauylea purai poricholon songnnokachea adaran niyontrit kortat. Zopani raxttri-i relven chalu kel'le he provasi relve porivhon veusthechem anik ek khaxeleponn mhollear tatunt vapril'li korxonn pod'dot. Mhollear khoinchey ujeagaddoyek vegllem injin lainasotana ujeagaddoyechea kaim ddobeamnich vidyut cholitram bosoun te vorvim gaddi choloupachi pod'dot.


Uprant 1983 vorsa french raxttri-i relve veusthen peris te liam hea relvemargar vorak sorasori 200 kimi. Dhamvpi ani choddant chodd 260 kimi. Hea tufani vegan dhamvpi ujeagaddoyo chalu koru ek novo vikrom' prosthapit kelo. Tti. Ji. Vhi.(xxxxxx) hea namvamn somvsarik namna mellil'lea hea french relve veusthen ujeagaddoyanche sonkhyent ani tanchea lamb pol'leant vadd korun horxim hovaimargan yo voch korpi hozaramni provaxank he otizolod ujeagaddoyentlean vochpachi as nirmann korun dili.


Relve poricholonachea mollauyoli ek novi ghoddnnuk mhollear 1970 uprant ek rullauylean vochpi ujeagaddi. He porichalon pod'dotint ek va don ddobe axil'leo gaddeo zomnisaun 9 -12 mi. Unchayecher bandil'lea ek rulli margak humkollot provas kortat. Ek rulli porivhon veusthechi survat omerikent 110 provasi gheun vorak 30 kimi. Vegan kaim ontor purai kortali. Uprant framsant oxi veustha 120 provasi gheun vorak 80 kimi. Vegan yeradari korunk lagli. Punn ticho kaim' svorupacho ani niymit vellar yo voch korpacho upkrom' zopanant 1970 vorsa bhoril'lea antororaxttri-i prodrxonachea nimtan suru zalo. Oxe torechi ek rulli relve porivhon veustha omerikentlea siॲttol xarant char ddobe axil'lea gaddeamni sodanch 10,000 provaxanchi yeradari korta. Hi provasi yeradari her progot dexamni-i chalu asa.


Relve porivhonantlea provasi yeradarichea adhunikikoronnant relvechea bhumyari ani prixtthobhagauylean vochpi yeradari veusthechoi aspavo zata. Hatuntole dusre veustheche don vibhag poddleat. Poileant bhumyari relvemargor dhamvpi aggaddoyo upnogoramni bhuprixtthar dhamvtat ani dusreant unnea vojnachea ddobeanchi ani rullanchi holki relve yeradari prochlit asta.


1940 uprant aggaddoyanche veg ani svorup hatunt nodrent bhorpasaroke bodol zale. Techvangodda tatuntlean provas korpi lokanchea sukh-soyinchea yeuzonnamni-i khub sudaronna zaleo. Bhumyari margan vochpi ani prixtthomargauylean otivegan dhamvpi aggaddoyantlea provaxank avazacho, hoventlea bodoltea tapmanacho ani vegvegllea svorupachea produxonnacho vaitt porinnam' zaucho nhoi dekhun soglle ddobe vatanukulit korop gorjechem zalem.


Uprantchea kallant omerika ani yurop khonddantlea kaim xarant vimanotollasaun lagsarchea relve sthanka meren vochpakhatir va oxech torecheo lagsarchea don sthanam'modim eke vellek sumar 40 provaxanchi porot porot yeradari korpi ani songnnokachea adaran svoincholit axil'li relve porivhon veustha upegant haddlea.


1950 vorsa relve porivhonantole mhal yeradarintoi krantikarok bodol zale. Vhodd akaromanacheo ani chodd vozon vhorpi khubxo (100 te 200) vaginni zoddun kel'lea aggaddoyani thoravik sthanarosaun thoravik thollar vattent unneant unnea thollamni ravun aplo provas purai korpacho ani aplea mull sthanakodden rokhddench porot yeupachem hem arvil'lea mhal porichalonachem mukhel totv asa.


Ostontea dexant 1960 uprant malyeradari pod'dotint ek novem yug suru zalem ani sodea somvsarik mollar tacho prosar zalo. He pod'dotint vaginnint mal bhorinasotona to ek tikhea pettyent bhorop ani oxo zaiteo petteo yarichea adaran vegvegllea porivhon veusthantolea vahnacher ghalop va demvoup.


Fuddaracheo sudaronna[बदल]

rullauylean dhamvpi aggaddoyechea vegak rull ani chakam hanchea ghorxonnak lagun ek moreada poddtta. Sadaronnoponnan vorak 300 kimi. Oso choddant chodd veg urta. Fuddarak tache poros chodd veg aspachi goroz uprasotoli hem motint gheun relve tontrogoneananchem te nodren sonxodhon chol'lam. Tekhatir rullauylean chakam dhamvpak poryai mhonnun rull ani chakam hanche modim ontor dourun dhamvpi mhonnjech rullaposun kaim ontrauylean aggaddi dhamvpachi kolpona 1934 to mukhar aili. Tekhatir poilim vimanaosole ponkhe va zhot prochalon hancho vapor kelo. Punn ho proyog yoxsvi zalona. Fuddem hech kolponecher chumbki-i va vidyut gotiki tontran aggaddoyek ukhlun dhorun gotiman korpi yontronna mukhar aili. Rull ani chakam hanche modim chumbki-i ani vidyut tontrachea adaran gaddyek rullaposun voir kaddun goti divpachi kolpona protyokxant haddop zali.


Megleuh (Magnetic levitation) hea namvan vollkhotole he adhunik tontrovidyechea sonxodhonak zopan ani zormonin vixex pravinny dakhoilem ani vorak sumar 400 kimi. Vegan dhamvpi aggaddoyechi nirmiti keli.


Bhoutek her raxttramni oxe torechi mohtovegovan aggaddi nirmann korpachi apli mokh dourlea. Bhartanuy he kolponechi fattpurounn 1989 to korpachi itsa dakhoili asli tori protyokxant he babtint vhoddlixi progti zali na.


Konkonn relve[बदल]

konkonn relve, moharaxttr, gõy ani kornattok hea tin rajeantlea vota. Moharaxttrant roha sttenaurovim ho marg sonttrol relve margak zoddla zalear kornattokantlea mongllur sttexnaurovim to dokxinn relvemargak zoddla. Roha te mongllur oxi konkonn relvechi lambai 763 kimi asa. Bharti-i relve nigman aizomeren ghetil'lo ho soglleant vhoddlo proklp.


Brittix razouttint 1882 to konkonn doreadeg mukhel bharti-i relve margak zoddpachi yeuzonn ankhil'li. Punn soimik addmelleank lagun ti yeuzonn chalik laupak xoky zalem na. Uprant 1984t tatpurotem sorvekxonn korun konkonn prodexant novo relvemarg bandpachi yeuzonn ankhli. 1988t ankhli. 1988t kholayen sorvekxonn korun konkonn relve korporexon li. Hi svont'tr somstha ubaroli.


Konkonn relve proklpachem kam' ekttobor 1990 to suru zaun, uprant tem paunddoyam paunddoyamni oxem ddisembor 1997 meren zalem. Konkonn relvemargacher vott'tt 59 sttexnam asat. Purai zal'lea hea 763 kimi. Lambayechea margacher vott'tt lambai 83.60 kimi. Tatuntolo karbuddenche (rotnariri) bogda soglleant lamb asun tachi lambai 6.5 kimi. Asa. Toxench to bhartantolo soglleant lamb bogdo. Konkonn relvemargacher mukhel oxem 179 pul ani 2,819 sade pul asat. Tatuntolo xorauti nhomyeuyolo pul soglleant lamb (2065.8mi). Konkonn relve proklpak lagun fokot konkonn prodexakuch nhoi, zalear sobond bhartak vhodd lavo mellttalo oxem mot uktailam. Relve mohamonddollachea motapromann (1998) konkonn relvecho vott'tt khorch sumar 2200 kotti zatlo.

Polleiat[बदल]

Indian_Railways

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