Ingland

विकिपीडिया कडल्यान
हुपून वचात: दिशा-नियंत्रण, सोद
Ingland चो बावटो
Ingland चें प्रतीक
Ingland

Ingland[बदल]

ह्या विषयावयर देवनागारींत बरयिल्लें पान वाच : इंग्लंड

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Inglix bhas:

inglix (inglez, angl) bhas. Hi mull inglonddantlea lokanchi bhas asun, aiz ti grett britton, airlondd, yunaittedd sttetts ef omerika, vestt inddiz zumve, kendda, dokxinn afrika, esttrelia ani nyujhilondd hea dexantlea lokanchi mukhel bhas zaun asa. Bharot, pakistan, bangla dex, brohmodex, xrilonka,agney axiantole zaite dex, afrika khonddantole choddxe dex ani somvsaratolim lhan-vhodd raxttram, vepar dhondo, unchelem xikxonn toxench antororaxttri-i somprkakhatir madhyom' mhunn hi bhas vaprotat. Bharti-i gonnrajeachea rajkarobharachi ti ek bhas asun bhartantlea don rajeanchi ti rajbhas zaun asa. Somvsarik bhas mhunn aiz, khoinchey bhaxeporos inglix bhaxek chodd mhotv asa.

Inglix bhas panchvea ani sovea xotmanant, ut'tor yuropantlean inglonddat ayil'lea inddo-yuropi-i bhaxakullantlea zormanik gottachea akromok pongddamni aplea vangdda haddli.Tachea adi grett brittnant kelttik pongddacheo bhaso uloitale. Kallantoran teo noxtt zaleo. Halim hea kaim bhasanchem punrujjiun zait asa.

Sovea xotmanasaun ikravea xotmana merenchea kallak ongl-sekson va purvil'lo inglix kall mhonnttat. I.So.1066 to framsachea normon lokamni inglonddacher aplo xek choloun french ani lettin bhasanchem vhoddponn inglixicher bosoilem. Pondravea xotmana merenocho kall, ho inglix kall mhonnttat. I.So.1066 to framsachea normon lokamni inglonddacher aplo xek choloun french ani lettin bhasanchem vhoddponn inglixicher bosoilem. Pondravea xotmana merenocho kall, ho modhy kall tor sollavea xotman te aizomerenocho kall ho arvil'lea inglixicho kall mantat. Ekunnisavea xotmana uprant inglix bhaxechem udrogotichem novem yug suru zalem oxem mantat.

Inglix bhaxechea sogllea kallkhonddant inglixichi dhvonipd'dhot, khas korun svor vhodd promannant bodl'le. Punn inglix bhaxentoli borpaull, sollavea xotmanant asli thoinch urli.Haka lagun inglixitolem uchchar ani borpaull hatunt vhodd ontor nodrek yeta. Lettin toxech khristi dhormachea probhavakhala, inglix bhaxechem borop sovea xotmanasaun romon lipint zait ailam. Xobdosompt'ti, veakronn, nounirmonni kxomta hea gozalimni inglix bhas fuddaril'li. Otthravea xotmana uprant brittix sot'tekhala axil'lea somvsarobhorchea vosahotink lagun ani visavea xotmanachea dusrea ordant omerikechea somvsarobhor vaddil'lea probhavak lagun inglixik khub mhotv mell'llam.

Aiz visavea xotmanachea xeuttak, inglixint zaiteo thollaveopottobhaso disun yetat. Brittnant skottix, modhy pranti-i, udent ani dokxinn boli bhasanche bhed spoxtt distat. Tebhair omerikentoi inglix bhaxent thollave bhed asat. Kendda, esttrelia, dokxinn afrika,bharot ani brittixancheo her vosahotim sarkea vegvegllea dexantlea inglix bolinchim dhvoni utram, rupvikar, veakronn, vakyorochonnuk, hel hea sogllea gozalimni motto bhed asa.Somvsarantlea zaitea bhagant inglixikodden tea tea vattharantlea bhasancho somyog ghoddun zaito mixrobhaso (pidgin) ani somyukt bhas (creole)nirmann zaleat.

Inglixint o, o, o, o, a, o( ), o (dirgh ), o(^ ) , o o, e e ( dirgh) he bara svor; .........................................................He nnou zoddsvor; po, bo, mo ,tto , ddo, no (dontmuli-i); cho,zo (talvy); ko, go, fo, fo, vh, tho, do, so, zho, xo, jhy, ho (ghorxok) ani yo, ro, yo, lo, vo him vott'tt chovis vyonjnam asat. Inglixint svoranchem dirghotv mhotvachem asun, ghorxokam tichem khaxeloponn zaun asa. Utrancher dil'le aghat he inglix uchcharanchem mhotvachem lokxonn mantat. Agatoloi ani vott'tt vakeamvelo hel hankamlagun inglixinchea uchcharachem khaxeloponn nodrek yeta.

Inddo-yuropi-i bhaxankullant konknni va moratthi sarkea bhasanchim zaitim khaxeloponnam inglixint aslim torikuy rupvikarachea mollar inglix vikaromukt zait ailea. Namanchem lingbhed, vibhkti, vixexonnanche vikar ani her vikar inglixint na zait chol'leat. He vikar fokot sorvonam' ani vochnambhitor tigun urleat. Namanchi uppodam, somasik xobdosomyog mull rupam adim ani uprant purvopodam, uppodam zoddun kel'li zaitea prokaranchi xobdonirmonni, somrid'dh uposrg,bhut ani vortoman he don kall, korta+kriapod+korm' oso vakeantolo sadaronnoponnan xobdokrom' him inglix bhaxechea veakronnachim khas angam.

Inglix bhaxen her bhasankoddlean vhodd promannant utramvoll uxnni ghetlea. Skonddineviyon, ddoch, lettin, grik, french, ittaliyon, spenix, zormon, bharti-i oxa bhasam'modolim xenkddeamni utram hem bhaxent ghollttat. Taka lagun vingodd vingodd prokarancho axoi porgottaupakhatir inglix bhaxechi utraull girest zalea. Inglixosahity:

isvi sonachea sovea xotmanasaun aizomeren inglix sahiteachi porompora, vingddovingodd kallkhonddat thambnasotona apli udrogot ghoddoit raulea. Inglonddantole lekhkoch nihoi tor skottlondd, vels ani airlondd hea prantam'modlea lekhkanchem sahityoi, inglix sahiteacho ovibhajy bhag zaun asa. Ekunnisavea xotmana uprant omerikon,esttreliyon ani keneddiyon heo bhaso tatuntlean vegvegolli raxttri-i osmitai porgottaupak lagil'lean, tea tinuy bhasank svotontr fantte mantat.

Purvil'le inglix sahity (i. So. 1066 meren):

inglix bhaxentolem soglleant pornem va purvil'lem sahity isvi sonachea panchvea xotmanant, inglonddant zormini pongddache bhaxent moukhik rupant ani uprantchea likhit svorupant melltta. Hea sahiteak 'oledd inglix' va 'onglo-sekson' hea namvani vollkhotat. Mull inglixicho svobhavo ani somvedonoxiloponn onglo-sekson.Punn french, lettin ani her bhasanchea chopnnakhala ticho nax zait cholil'lo dista. Voili gozal khori asli tori tich inglix sahiteache buneadichi prernnaxkt zaun asa. Kelttik vonxachea lokanchem sahity gelik, skottix, velx, kornix ani airix hea poristhitink tondd divn tigovo uril'lea bhasanchem lok poromporent dista. Hem sahity onglo-sekson sahiteachea adinchem zaun asa. Purvil'lea inglix sahiteache poilem gey ovxex sovea, satvy xotmanaadi onglo-sekson lokamnim bhailea inglonddant haddil'le mellttat. Hatunt 'beovulof' hem sumar bot'tisoxem vollinchem opurnn svorupantolem mhotvachem arx mohakauy aspauta. Hea mohakaveachem kaim xotmanam bhattamvrovim gaup zatalem. Hacho mukhel naik 'beovulf' ho sviddnanchlea razacho sumar bot'tisoxem vollinchem opurnn svorupantolem mhotvachem arx mohakauy aspauta. Hea mohakaveachem kaim xotmanam bhattamvrovim gaup zatalem. Hacho mukhel naik 'beovulf' ho sviddnanchlea razacho putnnoyo. To eka norobhkxok sorpasuracho ani tachea duxtt auycho, aplea bollgean nax korta. Punn hatunt takai moronn yeta. Onglosekson podyosochonnuk niryomok, prasyukt ani vollint kitlim-i utram aslim tori chodd korun char aghat sabamllopi asa. Keddmon ‍(7 vem xotman). Kinivulf (9 vem xotman)hea don mhotvachea kovinchi rochna ani seksonancho raza alfredd (9 vem xotman) hannem dil'le urben boroil'lem gody vafmoi he hea yugant poddil'li molachi bhor. Bidd (673-735) ho vhodd ponddituy heach kallant zaun gelo. Tachem itihasachem mhotvachem ttipnnopustok 'di onglosekson kronikol' khub gajla. Modhyokallantolem inglix sahity:

(1066-1516) i.So. 1066 to framsantlea normon lokamni inglonddak horoun sumar panchxim vorsam french bhas samskritayecho probhavo inglix somskritayecher dourolo. Dhormik vattharant ani xikxonnik mollar lettin bhasen aplo xek choloilo, zalear sorkari pamvddear, dorbarant ani sahityik mollar french bhaxen aplem vhoddponn gazoilem. Hak lagun inglixiche somrchonent disam.

Purvil'lea inglix kallasaun inglonddant dhormik vidhintlean nattkachi nirmonni purai svorupant nasli tori soukasayen suru zal'li. Ti pondravea xotmanant niti nattkam ani sollavea xotmanant uprodhprodhan loghunattokam oxa oksomat oprup nattkachi nirmonni kel'leachem nodrek yeta.

Probodhon kall ‍‌(1516-1660): purai yuropant patllil'lem novem prourit'tivadi totvoginean pondramvea xotmanachea xeuttak inglonddak paulem. Utsfut yeupi kauyomoita ani kolponechem romyoponn hankam utthavo divpi sahity obhizat grik ani romon sahity vrit'tichea xekatollam ghoddpak laglem. Vyoktivadacho udoi zaun xikxonn, vepar, navik dollachi tank hatunt inglonddoche lok yuropant soglleant vhodd tharle. Khas korun elizhabeth rannyechea unchelea somstik vatauronnacho tea kallantlea sahityikancher ut'tezok porinnam' zalo. I. So. 1485 te 1660 merenchea inglonddchea probodhonachea hea kalak, sahiteachem bhangrayug mantat. I.So.1476 to vilyom' keksottn hannem poilo chhapkano suru korun mudronn somskritayechea obhinou porvak survat keli. Grik, lettin, ittaliyon ani french hea progot bhasantole borem borem gronth inglixit onnkarit kele. Sahiteachea sogllea prokarantlean raxttri-i osmitayecho nettan ovixkar ghoddpak laglo. Dhormoguru popaadd inglix razamni vhodd bondd kelem ani raxttri-i chorchichi thapnnuk keli.Lyuthorpronnit prottesttontt ponthache te adarokhambe zale. Manoutavadi lekhkanchi vhodd poromporach hangasaun suru zali. Tatunt ttomos mor hannem boroil'lo yuttopia (1516) ho gronth oprup asun,tatunt tannem bud'dhichea kosacher adrx somaz pod'dhoticho thavo ghetla. Hea lettin gronthachea poilea ujvaddaupasaun inglonddant probodhonokall suru zata.

Proboghon kallantoli kovita samki utsfurt, manoutavadi, romonttik ani olonkarik asa. Sor filip siddni ani eddmondd spensor he don dorbari kovi aplea plettonik mogachea vhoddponnakhatir toxench 'noitik purnnotai soundryoxilotek poxok asta', hea totvogineanakhatir namnek paule. Spensorachem 'do feori kvin' (1590-1609) hem ordokuttem dirthokauy hea kallkhonddantolim soglleant mhotvachi kauyokriti zaun asa. Probodhon kallachea dusrea ordant kovita chodd gombhir ani vicharoxil rupxil xoilichi ani virodhobhasachi axil'li. Zon ddon, zorz horbott, henri vhon, richrdd krexo, obrahom' kaddli, ennddru marvhol ani her svotontr progonea axil'le, dhormik prourit'tiche kovi gunnout'teche modren mhotvache mantat. Heach kallant ben zonson, herik ani her 'kevelior' kovi chodd torol sobitokayeche nodreche, tarotmyovadi, obhizatotavadi ani rochnebhitoroli nivllosann mhotvachi somzupi asle. Mohakovi zon miltton (1608-1674) ho tanche prokritikodden zullpi hea kallantolo mhan sahityik aslo. Khor vikritivangoddach grik soundryototvacho somrth avixkar ghoddoupi toxench kristi totvogineanachea noitik adrxak ekttham-i gunthpi protibha tachekodden asli. Adrxovadi pyuritton ponthacho to khor obhimani aslo. Baibolantlea monxachea odh:potnachea kothasutracher tannem inglixit ek omor mohakauy 'perddaiz lostt' (1656-1665) rochlem. Hea prodirgh oxa mohakaveant kaveacho ani pandditeacho durmill oso mell sadla.

Hea kallantolem gody vingodd vingodd xoiliprokarancho proyog korpi ani zaitea novea gody prokaranchem mullaunn ghalpi tharlem. Hea kallantole lili, loz, grin, bekon, ttomos, braddon, voltton,fulor ani her godyokar ul'lekh korpasaroke asat. Punn jemsochea fattbollan (1611) ho baibolacho sopo, sobit onnkar mhollear hea kallantolo soglleant mhan ovixkar zaun asa.

Probodhonantolim nattkam him hea kallantlea yugodhrmacho dixttavo dakhoun ojromvor zal'lim distat. Hea kallant zaun gel'lo mhan nattkokar ani kovi vilyom' xeksopiyor rongmachoyecher kranti ghoddoili. Zaiteo lhan-vhodd sukhantika ani dukhkhantika, itihasik natty prohsonam hea soglleanchi bhorsonn axil'le zaite natty prokar ostitvant aile ani tanchi udgotoi ghoddli. Nimnnem 1642 to, khor dhormabhimani pyuritton parlomenttan nattok-ghoram do korpacho hukum' soddimeren inglix rongmachoyer zaitea unch pamvddeanchea nattkanchi nirmonni zali.Bhirankull, xrigaromoi ani korunnogombhir nattkache nirmate ril, loz, grin, nex hevudd he zaitea veusayik nattok monddllacho adar asle. Punn xeksopioroche likhnnen melloil'li soundryoxilota,monxachea monachem barikosannen kel'lem vachop, ojromvor patranchi nirmonni him sogllinch ozapam oxem somzotat. Hemlett (1601), ethel'lo (1604), king lior (1605), mekbeth (1606) ani ennttoni kliopatra (1606) heo tacheo dukhkhantika, nattkachea mollaveleo mhan kolakriti osom monatat. Tachea vott'tt 37 nattkantleo 17 sukhantika legit dadlea-bailanchea sombondacho ek khasa anondacho onnbhou ghoddoitat. Xeksopior he somvsarantolem ek vhodd ozap.

Probodhon kallachea dusrea ordant ben zonson (1573-1637) ho unch obhiruchicho nattkokar ani vebsttor, mosinzor, fordd, xorli, boumontt, flechor ani zaite nattkokar rongmachoyek girest kortale. Hea soglleamni somvidhanokani sobit rochnnuk ani tontrobd'dh nattkonirmonne chodden chodd lokx dilem.

Resttorexon kall va ddraiddonache yug (1660-1700): kovitentlea sopea suttsuttit godeakodden, kolponavilasa koddlean vicharoxilotekodden, romyotavadakoddlean obhizatovada kodden udrogot ghoddoupi ho kall, dusro charlos raza zal'lo tea kallasaun otthravea xotmanache survatimerenochem inglix sahityourit'titolem vhodd bodol dakhoita. Somtol obhivyoktik mhotv divpi, odd, doxauyovi yugnok (hiroik koplett), uphas he kauy prokar hea kallant voir sorle. Otthravea xotmanant hea kauyoprokarak anikoi rong bhorlo. Zon ddraiddon (1631-1700) hannem hea kallant sogllea toranchea sahityoprokarant mhotvachi nirmonni kelea. Hea kallantolo ho eklo eksuro vhodd kovi ani yugokrto lekhok. Her nattkokar, kovi ani lekhok chodd mhotvache nat. Ddraiddonan somikxok novem obhizatovadi rup dilem. Aplea unch obhiruchiurovim ani somajik zannvikayek mhotv divn, ddraiddonan purai inglix sahityik novi dika divpacho vaur kelo: kotthor atmonirikxonn, kottiprokaracher axil'lo xek, he tachea vyoktimtvache mhotvache gunn. Hea kallant kangrivo ani ettove he nattkokar, pyuritton soulleponnachem viddombon korpi kovi semyuol bottlor, dispottikar semyuol pipos, kadomborisarokem vornnonopor gody boroupi dhormik vrit'ticho lekhok zon voniyn hancho vaur ul'lekh korpasaroko asa. Lok, hyum', hobos he vivekonitik mhotv divpi totvogone heach kallant zale. Inglonddachem raxttri-i jinnent voigoneanik kranti ghoddoun haddpi ‘roil sosaitti ef londdon’ he somsthechi thopnnuk i.So 1662 to zali. Hem somsthechea yotnank lagun inglix sahity sope, suttsuttit, sugom' ani olonkar viroit zait gelem.

Nou obhizatotavad (1700-1798): purai otthravem xotman don gozalinkhatir namvajil'lem asa. Ek, inglix sahiteatolem mhotvache gody nirmonne khatir dusrem, purvil'lea romon somrajeantole somratt egosttoschea kallantlea vamfmoyachem (lettin vafmoyachem) bhangra yug adrx manun teuri koleche kos manpi sahityikam khatir. Hea kallant poilim, olekdhenddor pop hachem yug (1700-1744) ani uprant ddo. Zonsonachem yug (1744-1784) him dom' mhotvachim yugam ailim. Vaddtti bud'dhivadi prourit'ti, uphas, uprodh ani viddombon hancho probhavo axil'lem gody ani pody, xobdoyeuzonnekhatir vapril'li bud'dh, bhaxechi nivllosann ani podeaporos godeacher dil'lo nett him hea kallantlea sahiteachim mukhel lokxonnam.

Rosall, sopi somtol sadpi, niyontrit oxi poripkv godyoxoili otthravea xotmanant inglix bhaxent fuddem aili. Takalagun gody sahity prokar sope ani porinnamokarok zaupak lagle. Kadombori sarko sahity prokaroi cholnnukent ailo. Ddeniyl fiddo hachi ‘robinson kruso’ (1799), zonathon sviftt hachi ‘golivhors ttreulrs’ (1726), richrddoson hachi ‘pemelo’ (1740) ani fildding hachi ‘ttom' zons’ (1749) heo poileo voileo kadombreo zaun asat. Smolett, sttorn, volpol. Golddosmith, zonson hamnni-i kadomboriche udrogotik aplo hatbhar laila.

Olekzhanddor pop (1688-1744) ho hea xothmanontolo soglleant vhodd kovi. Doxauyovi yugmok soglleant boretoren vaddoupachem xrey taka favo zata. ‘eso en men’, ‘ese en krittisizhom'’ hi totvik dirghokaveam, homor hachea ‘iliydd’ cho onnkar, ‘do rep ef do rok’ ani ‘do ddonsiodd’ him viddombon mohakaveam he tachea vhodd sahity nirmonnentole namneche gronth asat. Somajik prosn khobramptrantolean manddpi mhunn namna zoddil'le eddison ani sttil he don nibond lekhok popchea kallantole. Nemalleanchi survat ani vadd heach kallant zali.Xarant novean udeak ayil'lo modhyourg rajkoronnant bollixtt tharil'lean toxench sahity vachon korpi vorgoi hoch axil'lean hea vorgachea zannvikayenchem poddbimb inglix sahiteantlean choddant chodd uktem zaunk laglem.

Ddo. Semyuel zonson (1709-1784) ho budvont uloupi, vikxipt, punn soddetodd ani soroll motank lagun tea kallamvelea sahityikam'modim adaracho zago favo zal'lo ek mhan ani huxar sahityik. Jems bosvelan ‘laif ef semyuel zonson’ (1791) namvachem tachem choritr boroilam. He donuy inglixint ojromvor tharleat. Zonsonachem boud'dhik rangddeponn, kotti korop,noitik tatthroponn, kosli-i ghoddnnuk ani sahityokriti svotontr nodren polloupachi pod'dhot, somikxeche novem choritronixtth sok laupachi dhottnni he ani her kaim gunn bosvelan kolatmok nodren polloileat ani choritr lekhnachi aglli veglli dkh ghalun dilea. Zonson ho obhizatovadacho khor somrthok aslo. Punn tachem olonkoronn prem', vichitr motpronnali ani osadaronn jiun pod'dhotichi as hea gunnank lagun to inglixintlean obhizatovadacho rhas dakhoita. Kauy, kadombori, nibond, sonxodhon ani her sahiteachea mollar tannem mhotvacho vaur kel'lo aslo, tori-i taka somikxok, yugprorvotok, choritrokar ani inglix bhaxecho poilo xobdokox rochpi mhunn chodd vollkhotat.Golddosmith ho kovi ani godyokar, xeriddon ho nattkokar, bosvel ho choritrokar, gorik namvacho nott tache vangdda sahityik bhasabhas korun kauyoxastr vinodant vellar sartale. Hem ‘zonsonachem sorkol’ mhunn namnek paulam.

Romonttik somprodai (1798-1837):

otthravea xotmanant zaitea kovimni ani gody lekhkamni chodd unnea promannant romonttik prourit'tichi borpaull kel'li disun yeta. Jems ttomson,vilyom' kopur, ttomos gre, vilyom' blek ani robrtt borns hea svochchhondovadi kovimni ani gibon, bork, golddosmith, volpol, goddvin, en reddklif hea gody lekhkamni bhutkallachem punrujjiun, modhyoyugantoli axoisutram, gamvgire vixoi, soim' ani suknnim-sadnam hanchi tokhnnai korpi atmolkxmi prokarochem sahity boroilem. Romonttik prourit'tichea sahiteachi bunead punrujjiun, modhyoyugantoli axoisutram, gamvgire vixoi, soim' ani suknnim-sadnam hanchi tokhnnai korpi atmolkxmi prokarochem sahity boroilem. Romonttik prourit'tichea sahiteachi bunead oxe toren nokllottonach poddli. Punn 1798 to viliym' vorddsvorth (1770-1850) ani es. Tti. Kolriz (1772-1834) hea dogam-i ixttokovimni ‘lirikol belddos’ ho aplo kovitancho jhelo ujvaddailo ani hea jheleache prostaunent tanni otthravea xotmanantlea prosthapit obhizatovadaadd bonddacho ulo marlo. Bhaxeche ani sadaronn gamvgirea jinnentlea jity jivea prosongachem novemponn ho tanchea vidrohacho mukhel het aslo. Torikoi romonttik somprodayan her zaitea gozalimni otthravea xotmanantlean prosthapit sahityik sid'dhantak poisaun inglix bhaxechi nounirmonni kxomta sid'dh kelea. Hea 30-40 vorsantolem romonttik sahity purai yuropi-i sahity poromporent ‘vhodd’ mantat.

French rajyokrantichea totvogineanache bhouman, inglonddantlea ud'degik kranticho dhikkar,vaddttea xarikoronnachi tiddok, soimachea udaroponnacho adar, avixkarachea mollar otthravea xotmanantlea obhizatovadak khor virodh, vyoktivadi muleancho purskar, protibha, ginean ani bhavanotkottota hankam vivekoxiloteporos dil'lem chodd mhotv, ogoneatavixim axil'lim zobor odd him romonttokotechi kaim khaxeloponnam asat. Vorddsvorth, kolriz ani vilyom' blek hea poilem pillgechea kovim'modi him khaxeloponnam moreadit svorupant asli. Lordd bairon, pi. Bi. Xeli ani zon kitts he dusre pillgechea romonttik kovim'modi hanchim khaxeloponnam unch pamvddear poilem pillgechea kovim'modi him khaxeloponnam moreadit svorupant asli. Lordd bairon, pi. Bi. Xeli ani zon kitts he dusre pillgechea romonttik kovim'modi hanchim khaxeloponnam unch pamvddear pavil'lim distat. Xeli ani kitts hea kovimni aple lhan pirayet lirikol xoilichi oprup kauy rochnnuk korun kauy nirmonniche nove adrx toyar kele. Volttor skottak itihasik kadomboricho ‘korto’ mhunn somvsarik sahiteant vollkhotat. Charlos lemb, vilyom' hejhlitt, ttomos ddo kvinsi, li hontt, lennddor hea romonttik gody lekhkamni kauyomoi godeachea vingodd vingodd prokarant borpaull kelea. Hea choddxa zannamni pody nattkaim rochlim, punn tim rongmachoyek vhoddlinxim upegi tharunk nat. Choddxea soglleach romonttik kovi-godyokaramni lokx vedhpi mullaveo somikxa boroileat. Khas korun kolrizan inglix sahity somikxek koleche svait'totechi novi dika dakhoilea. Taka lagun to arvil'lo somikxecho ‘mullpurus’ tharla.

Heach kallkhonddant jen esttinan apnnale xikttuk uprodh xoilik lagun ani bailanche jinnentlea samany prosongank kothanokam vorvim sahiteant ojromvor tharail'leo kadombreo boroileo. Esttin vrit'tin romonttik lekhkanche purai toren add mhollear obhizatovadi asli. Vhikttoria rannyeche yug (1837-1901):

brittix samrajeacher ken'nach sury ostak vochni oxem hea kallkhonddank gorvan mhonnttale. Punn brittnant mat hea kallant sogllekodden songhrx,osontox ani voicharik ghuspagondoll choltalo ani brittix sureak girann lagil'lem. Vhikttoriyon sahiteant sogllea somajik vixeanchem poddbimb poddil'lem dista. Charlos ddarvin, tti.Ech. Hoskole, horbortt spensor, zon sttuortt mil, karzhail, nyumon, methyu arnoldd, eskor vaildd, rejhett'tti, roskin, malthos, karl marks oxa vegvegllea mollavelea mhan vicharountamni sogllea prosthapit kolponank dhokke dile. Rajki, dhormik ani somajik sudaronnank lagun ho kallkhondd gojbojil'lo dista. Lokxai, kamgaranche hokk, bailancho motdanacho hokk, dhorm' sudaropachi goroz, lhan bhurgeanchi ani gorib lokanchi rakhonn korpi somsdonentolem zaite kaide hea kallant zale. Kamgar lokamni mottem orazok mazoilem ani kitlinxinch xotmanam thir uril'lim brittix somajik muleam goddboddopachim chin'nam dispak laglim. Punn prosthapit vhikttoriyon lekhok mat apnnacher khoxi zaun voileuyor hea somajik rhasachi chinta kortana distat. Udaromotovada vangddach buneadi sudaronnam toxench omanovi ud'dhegikoronn, oti sukhachi as, khor dolldireponn hanchea bhomvreant vhikttoriyon yugantlea alfredd ttenison (1809-1892) hea yugprourtok kovichem kauy sapddil'lem dista. Tachem ‘in memoriom'’ hem dirghokauy oxa vdomvdatmok vicharoxilotentlean zolmolam. Romonttik (1812-1889) hea dusrea yugprourtok vhikttoria kovim'modim-i sampddottat. Ttinisonachem kauy polainovadi, bhaunakul, lokabhimukh zalear brauningachem kauy proitnovadi, vastovabhimukh ani totvoxil. Brauningan nattyochhotta ho novo prokar kaveant cholnnukent haddlo. Tebhair methyu arnoldd, ddi. Ji. Rojhetti, vilyom' moris, svinrbon he kaim mukhel vhikttoriyon kovi zaun asat. Mekole ho gody nibondokar vakeache khas xoilikhatir namnek paula. Korlail, nyumon, pettor, methyu arnoldd he namneche vicharount somajik prosn ani somsea aplea godeantlean ukte kortale.

Vhikttoriyon kallant kadomboricho avantth khub vaddlo tori tatunt zaitim vingddoponnam ailim. Charlos ddinkns (1812-1870) ho inglonddacho namnecho kadomborikar heach kallant zaun gelo.To khub gorib poristhitintlean voir soril'lo. ‘ddeuhidd koprofildd’, ‘blik haus’, grett eksopekttexns heo tacheo kadombreo svotachea onnbhovacher adarleat. Toxench tatunt inglondd dexachea dollidriponnachem jitem jivem chitronn kelam. Thekre ho dusro vhodd kadomborikar. ‘venitti feor’, ‘henri esmonndd’ aऩi her kadombreankhatir to namvajil'lo. Patrache nirmonnekhatir lagpi kuxllottai tache kodden axil'li. Zorz iliytt, emili brontte, xarlos brontte, elizhabeth reskol heo bail kadomborikarancheo rochnnokoi itihasik mhotvacheo. Enttoni ttrolop, zorz merddith,ttomos harddi, ar. El. Sttivnson hannem inglix kadombori somrid'dh korpak molacho vaur kelo.

Hea kallant ‘nattok’ hea sahity prokarak chodd mhotv mellunk na. Hea xotmanachea xeuttak zorz bornadd xo, eskor vaildd ani airlonddant suru zal'li zon sinz ani ddoblyu. Bi. Yetts hanchi novi rongmachi hatunt visavea xotmanantlea arvil'lea nattkanchea krantichem mull sampddotta. Arvil'lem yug (visavem xotman 1901-1970):

visavea xotmanachea poilea vis vorsant pornea odr-romonttik poromporentole zorjiyon kovi ekoutten soimik kounam rochtalem. Heach vellar vilyom' bottlor yetts (1865-1939), tti. Es. Iliytt (1885-1965) ani ejhra paundd (1885-1972) hea kovimni purai toren nove obhivyoktichea tontran kovitecho rupkar purai bodlun uddoilo. Yetts hachi ‘do ttaur’ (1927), paundd hichi ‘hyu selvin mobroli’ (1920)ani iliytt hachi ‘do vestt lenndd’ (1922) hea kovitank lagun inglixint arvil'leponnak nett ailo. Fuddem 40-45 vorsam, kolechea sogllea vattharant hancho probhavo zannoulo. Kadomborint,lattkant aऩi somikxent lagit arvil'leponnachi soya axil'li. Axoisutram ani muleam vyokt zaupak lagli. Poromporen cholun asil'lim sogllim muleam fattim poddlim. Sahityik mollar ji novim kranti ghoddli tache xrey karol marks, froidd, yung hanka toxench bodlot vochpi yogodhrmak favo zata. Kadomborichea mollar arnoldd benett, zon golsourdi, somrosett mom', ech. Ji. Vels ani hoksole hanni molidik vaur kelo. Frosttor, vhirjinia vurf ani jems zois hamnni krantikarok axoi ani dhattnnecheo kadombreo rochleo. Mansoxastri-i axeachem vismit korpi rup anikoi khorponnan vyokt zaupak laglem. Protimam ani protikam hacho vapor, axecho xittukosannen kel'lo upeg, muktochhond ani vott'tt sahityik kurvancho sodoll kel'lo vapor, loingik ani chiddil'lea monis svobhavache otivastouvadi, sopnallea protimaurovim ghoddyil'le vingodd vingodd avixkar (surriolizhom'), poromporeadd jinniupurvok sur kaddop ani svotache svotontr dhattnnecho choddant chodd vapor korop him arvil'lea kallachea sahiteachim khaxeloponnam zanou asat. Jems zoif (1882-1941) hachi ‘yulisis’ (1922) hi songoneaprovahotontrantoli kadombori bhaxechea unch proyogoxilotecho sogllyont vhodd arvil'lo avixkar oxem mantat.

Nattkachea mollar moladik bhor ghalpi za.Te nattkokar hea xotmanont zale. Haka lagun fattlim oddez xotmanam thondd poddil'li inglinx rongmachi portun tortoroli. Zorz bornardd xo (1856-1950) hachea somajik bandhilokichea khollbollozonok nattkamvorovim hea xotmanachi survat zali. Kouordd, jems beri, zon golsourdi ani noul pinro hea dusrea pamvddeachea nattkokara koddlean nattok kola udrogotichim sopnnam choddlim. Airix rongmachi, ebsordd nattkam,ongri thiettor ani pody nattkam, oxa vingodd vingodd proyogik cholloullimvorovim him rongmachi fulun aili. Semyuol bekett hea airix-french ‘ebsordd’ nattkakaralem ‘vetting for goddo’ hem nattok,khobraptrantolem gody ani tatvik gody hea mollar zaitea lekhkamni namna zoddlea. Tatunt breddli, rokel, mur, vittdensttin, frezhor, belok, chsttorotton, sttrechi he mukhel asat. Richrddos, emposon, hyum', ef. Ar. Livis ani tti. Es. Iliytt hamnni somikxeche nove sid'dhant manddle. Vismoikari sahityokam'modim konon, ddoil, jerom' ke. Jerom', pi. Ji. Vuddhaus hamnni somvsarik vikrom' kele.

Arvil'leavadacho (adhunikovad) nett chodd unnea promannant 1970 meren tigun urlo. Khub usram ujvaddak ayil'lea ji. Em'. Hopkins hea vhikttoriyon kovichea kovitantlean,toxench ddilon ttomos, ddoblyu ech.Ddon, si. Dde. Luis ani roi fulor ani her kaim kovinchea kovitantlean arvil'leavadacho nett unno unno zait gelo. Brott brijijh, zon mesfildd,poilea mhazhuzant sompil'le eddoun ani bruk sttivon spenddor ani her marksistt kovi, arvil'leavadachea nettantoi paromporik rochnnuk korpi dde lo meor, greuhoz hamnni apnnali xoili samball'lli. Aichem inglix sahity:

arvil'lea kallauporant ayil'lo aicho kall inglix sahiteant vhoddloso mhotvacho oxem maninat. Kovitent choddant chodd sokoilea modhm' vorgiyanchim axoisutram manjpi ani boli axecho sobit friupeg korpi zaite kovi hea kallant dixtti poddttat. Ttedd hyuz, filip larkin, geskoin, bettzomon, petton, ttomgon he hatunt mukhel asun te aizuy boroitat.

Kotha-kadomborichea mollar zorz ervel, saki, ivlin vo, grehom' grin, si. Pi. Sno. Iris morddik, zois keri hancho vaur mhotvacho aऩi oprup aslo tori aiz inglixint ekoi mhotvacho kadomborikar dixtti poddni. Kingzoli emis, zon ven ongos vilson, lorens ddorel ani goldding hea aichea kadomborikaranchem gombharoponn nodor oddun gheta. Halim vhi. Es. Naipol ani salman roxdi he bin-inglix sahityikuy inglonddant khub gajleat. Nattkachea mollar esborn, pinttor, apdden, veskor aऩi xeprdd he nattkokar arvil'leavada uprantochi sahiteak xoili cholnnumokent haddttat.

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