Malaria

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Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type. Malaria causes symptoms that typically include fever, tiredness, vomiting, and headaches. In severe cases it can cause yellow skin, seizures, coma, or death. Symptoms usually begin ten to fifteen days after being bitten. If not properly treated, people may have recurrences of the disease months later. In those who have recently survived an infection, reinfection usually causes milder symptoms. This partial resistance disappears over months to years if the person has no continuing exposure to malaria.[1]

Malaria is caused by single-celled microorganisms of the Plasmodium group.[2] The disease is most commonly spread by an infected female Anopheles mosquito.[2] The mosquito bite introduces the parasites from the mosquito's saliva into a person's blood.[2] The parasites travel to the liver where they mature and reproduce.[3] Five species of Plasmodium can infect and be spread by humans.[3] Most deaths are caused by P. falciparum, whereas P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae generally cause a milder form of malaria.[3][2] The species P. knowlesi rarely causes disease in humans.[2] Malaria is typically diagnosed by the microscopic examination of blood using blood films, or with antigen-based rapid diagnostic tests.[3] Methods that use the polymerase chain reaction to detect the parasite's DNA have been developed, but are not widely used in areas where malaria is common due to their cost and complexity.[4]

The risk of disease can be reduced by preventing mosquito bites through the use of mosquito nets and insect repellents or with mosquito-control measures such as spraying insecticides and draining standing water.[3] Several medications are available to prevent malaria in travellers to areas where the disease is common.[2] Occasional doses of the combination medication sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine are recommended in infants and after the first trimester of pregnancy in areas with high rates of malaria.[2] As of 2020, there is one vaccine which has been shown to reduce the risk of malaria by about 40% in children in Africa.[5][6] Efforts to develop more effective vaccines are ongoing.[6] The recommended treatment for malaria is a combination of antimalarial medications that includes artemisinin.[3][2] The second medication may be either mefloquine, lumefantrine, or sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine.[7] Quinine, along with doxycycline, may be used if artemisinin is not available.[7] It is recommended that in areas where the disease is common, malaria is confirmed if possible before treatment is started due to concerns of increasing drug resistance.[2] Resistance among the parasites has developed to several antimalarial medications; for example, chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum has spread to most malarial areas, and resistance to artemisinin has become a problem in some parts of Southeast Asia.[2]

The disease is widespread in the tropical and subtropical regions that exist in a broadband around the equator.[3] This includes much of sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and Latin America.[2] In 2018 there were 228 million cases of malaria worldwide resulting in an estimated 405,000 deaths.[8] Approximately 93% of the cases and 94% of deaths occurred in Africa.[8] Rates of disease have decreased from 2010 to 2014 but increased from 2015 to 2017, during which there were 231 million cases.[8] Malaria is commonly associated with poverty and has a significant negative effect on economic development.[9][10] In Africa, it is estimated to result in losses of US$12 billion a year due to increased healthcare costs, lost the ability to work, and adverse effects on tourism.[11]

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References[बदल]

  1. Caraballo H (2014). "Emergency department management of mosquito-borne illness: Malaria, dengue, and west nile virus". Emergency Medicine Practice. 16 (5). Archived from the original on 2016-08-01.
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 "Malaria Fact sheet N°94". WHO. March 2014. Archived from the original on 3 September 2014. Retrieved 28 August 2014.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 उल्लेख त्रुटीःInvalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Cara2014
  4. Nadjm B, Behrens RH (2012). "Malaria: An update for physicians". Infectious Disease Clinics of North America. 26 (2): 243–59. doi:10.1016/j.idc.2012.03.010. PMID 22632637.
  5. "Fact sheet about Malaria". www.who.int (in English). Retrieved 6 May 2020.
  6. 6.0 6.1 "Malaria vaccine: WHO position paper – January 2016" (PDF). Weekly Epidemiological Record. 91 (4): 33–52. 4 Nov 2016. PMID 26829826. Lay summary (PDF).
  7. 7.0 7.1 Guidelines for the treatment of malaria (2nd ed.). Geneva: World Health Organization. 2010. p. ix. ISBN 978-92-4-154792-5.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 WHO (2019). World Malaria Report 2019. Switzerland: World Health Organization. pp. xii–xiii, 4–10. ISBN 978-92-4-156572-1.
  9. सांचो:Cite report
  10. Worrall E, Basu S, Hanson K (2005). "Is malaria a disease of poverty? A review of the literature". Tropical Health and Medicine. 10 (10): 1047–59. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3156.2005.01476.x. PMID 16185240. सांचो:Open access
  11. Greenwood BM, Bojang K, Whitty CJ, Targett GA (2005). "Malaria". Lancet. 365 (9469): 1487–98. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)66420-3. PMID 15850634.

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"https://gom.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Malaria&oldid=187191" चे कडल्यान परतून मेळयलें