Afghanistan

विकिपीडिया कडल्यान
हुपून वचात: दिशा-नियंत्रण, सोद
ह्या विषयावयर देवनागारींत बरयिल्लें पान वाच : अफगाणिस्तान

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अफगाणिस्तान

Bhumyvrnnon[बदल]

Noirrity axientolo, chomyvxin bhumyen remvddail'lo dex.Okxourit'ti-i vistar 29° te 38° 35 ‘ ut'tor ani rekhaurit'ti-i 60°, 50 ‘ te 71°, 50’ udent. Ixanye koddlo vakhanocho potto 75° udent rekhaurit'ta meren asa. Dexache ut'torek roxia, ixany chin, udentek bharot ani pakistan, dokxinnek pakistan ani ostontek irann he dex asat. Kxetrofoll 6,50,000 chovo. Kimi. Ho dex dongramni bhoril'lo asun somudrothora saunochi unchai sumar 1,200 mi. Itli asa. Hindukux ho soglleant vhoddlo dongor. Hea dongrache fantte koh-i-baba, bond-i-bayan.Sofed-koh ani paropamimos he chomyvttamni patll'lleat. Modlea dongrachea kuddkeak hozarazat mhonnttat. Thoinchean zomin ani nhomyo ixanyenk soddlear sogllea dikamni demvt votat. Dexache dokxinnek doxt-e-margo ani registan ani noirrityek khax he usu poddil'le vatthar asat.

Helmondd hi soglleant vhoddli nhoim. Hozarazat saun dokxinneutten registan ani doxt-e-margo hanchea modlean hi vhamvta. Fuddem ostontek ti doldolichea vattharamni pauta. Orghondab hi he nhoinchi mukhel upnhoim. Hozarazatosaun khax rudr ani foroh rudr heo don nhomyo noirritye votten, horirudr nhoim ostonte votten, murghab vaivyoutten, kunddujh ut'toreutten, kokcha ixanyeutten vhamvot pakistanantole sindhu nhomyek mellttat. Ofgannistanoche ostont ximecher nomkosar hem kharea udkachem tollem asa. Agneyek sestan va hamun-i-helmondd ani goudd-i-jhire him tollim asat. Hozarazat hanga doxt-i-nabar ani ab-i-istad him tollim asat.Zomin khub toranchi asa. Dongranchea vattharantoli remvatt, chikchikit, udente koddenochi kalli, hindukuxchea dokxinneuttentoli kxaramni bhoril'li ani ut'toreuttentoli choddxi remvatt ximitta bhoxen asa.Chomyvxin bhum-i aslea karnnan hea dexak doreadeg na.

Hovaman[बदल]

Koddok gim' ani ekdom' thondd ximyache dis hem hanganchea hovamanachem khaxeloponn. Ratichea ani disachea tapmanan boroch forok asta. Ut'toreutten omritodrea nhoinchea vattharant gimachea disani tapman 53.3° se. Meren vaddtta. Unchelea vattharamni choddant chodd mhollear 32° se. Meren tapman vaddtta. Ximyachea disani kaim zagear tapman 18° se. Meren tor hindukuxachea vattharant -26° s. Meren demvta. Gimachea disani vorak 200kimi. Vegan dhul'lachem varem zalear ximyachea tempar ut'tor ani ostonte vottentlean thondd varem vhamvok lagta.1550 mi. Unch axil'loya vattharamni borf poddtta. Paus choddso ximyanchea disani vosont ritunt poddtta. Modlea unch vattharant 25 te 30sem'mi. Borfachea rupan paus poddtta. Dokxinne votten 5 sem'mi. Itlo paus poddtta.

Vonspot ani monzat[बदल]

Mollachea vattharamni stteps prokarachea tonna saun te unch dongrachea vattharamni olpain prokarchea tonna merenochem oxem torekovar tonn melltta. Deudar, chidd,sprus, pain, jyunipor, yu, hezhol, okrodd, bodam', pista, elivh, tuti, gujberi, zordallu, vilo, poplor, aex hem kukh sampddottatod. Toretoreche gulab, fulancheo vali, toxench drakxam, limbu sarkea lagouddik lagun ho vatthar sobit dista. Usu poddil'loya vattharamni okexia,boram, babholl, hing hanchim zhaddam mellttat. Torantoranchi ollmi-i hanga vaddttat. Ranam fokot udente votten nuristan ani sofedokoh vattharamni asta.Bhalu, kolo, toros, ranoutti kutro, ran mazor, chit'to, ranoutti menddhram ani bokodd, mungos, chichundri, zorboa, torantoranche sonxe hea sarki monzat ofgannistanant asa. Ranamni vamsvel ani omridorea sarkea vattharamni vaguy sampddottat. Mohoka, hamys, pelikon, chimnni, bulbul, megpai he sarkim sounnim ani komi promannant mahsir, ttrautt sarkim nustim asat.

Itihas[बदल]

i. So. 4000 poilim hindukuxachea ut'torek xetkamoti rautale oxem purat'tv xastrogoneanchem mot asa. I. So. Poilim 2000 vorsa areancho ek chomo balokh hanga raulo ani bakiche irann ani sindhuvtten gele. Voidik vafmoyant ofgannistanocho boroch ul'lekh asa. Rigvedantoli ‘pokth’ hi zomat mhollear ghoddye potthann asum yeta. Panninin hea dexak ‘kapixi’ ani thoim toyar zaupi soreak ‘kapixaini’ mhollam. Fatroptteam velean kabuloche ut'torek 80 kimi.Axil'lem begram' hench poilinchem ‘kapixi’ asunk zai oxem dista. Purvil'le grik ani romon bhugolotgone haka ‘kapisen’ mhonnttale. Hyu-en-tsong hannem haka ‘kia-pixe’ oxem namv dilam. Grik bhugolotgone sttrobo ofgannistanak ‘oriana’ mhonntta. I. So. Poilim sovea xenkddeachea modheak dokxinn irannantlea ‘aekemenidd’ hea samraddeachoch ho ek kuddko hem hanga mellil'lea nanneam velean dista.

I. So. Poilim 328 vorsa sumar olekzhanddoran aekemeniddoinank hanga saun dhamvddaun grik sot'techi thapnnuk keli. Olekzhanddora uprant selyukos nikettor hangacho raza zalo. Chondroguptan tacho porabhou kortokoch tannem hindukuxacho udent ani dokxinn vatthar chondroguptak dilo. I. So. 130 poilim te 125 hea kallant parthiyon ani yuechi chomeamni bekttriyon-grikancher zoit melloilem. Yuechi chomeatlea kuxannanim balkh hanga aplo xek gazounk survat keli.Tanchea vonxantlea kaddfises ani uprant konixk hamnni hind'dukux dongrache udentek kabul kondahar hanga aplea rajeachi thapnnuk keli. Konixkan thoim boudhd dhorm' cho prosar kelo; bamianachea lagim budhdacheo murti kondahar xoilichem xilp ani oxokache xilalekh mellttat. Konixka uprant hem samrajy noxtt zalem. Hunnamni ghureo ghalun hanga lhan-vhodd rajeam toyar kelim.

Satvea xenkddea saun orbamni hanga ghuri ghalun islamikoronnak survat keli. Punn kabul hanga 10 vea xenkddea meren hindu raza rajy choloitale oso ul'lekh melltta. Olptogin hannem 963vorsa gojhni hanga svotontr rajy nirmilem. Uprant ayil'lea sobktoginan hindu rajy jikhil'leachem ‘ol-boruni’ boroita. Te uprant gojhnichea mohom'modan 1001 vorsa ponzabocho raza zoipal hacher zoit melloilem. Zoipal tea kallar hindukux te gojhni meren rajy kortalo. Gojhnichi xokt unni zait vota mhollear ghor hanga baravea xenkddeyant selzuk turkanchi ek sot'ta toyar zali. Ghorcho mohom'mod hannem-i gojhnichea mohom'moda bhoxen hindustanacher ghureo ghalun borich sompt'ti melloili.

1219 to chongizhokhanan him rajeam noxtt kelim ani ofgannistanantolim borinch xaram bhumybhorounn kelim. Chongizhokhana uprant tache vonxoz zori sot'ter aile, tori hanga borinch svotontr rajeam axil'lim. 1380 to toimurolongan ofgannistan jikhun ghetlem. Tachea uprant tacho choltho put xoharukh (1405-47) hache kodden ofgannistan axil'lem. Tachi rajdhani ‘herat’ hi axil'li. Borechoxe kovi, vivdan, songitokar, xilpokar tachea alaxireant urle. Hannench herat xarache samskritik mhotv vaddoilem. Ujhbekocho muhom'modokhan xoibani hannem modhy ofgannistanant 1504 to apli sot'ta haddli ani kabul apli rajdhani keli. Tannem irannacho xoha ismail haka palou divn xoibanicho porabhou kelo.


Babran 1522 vorsa kondhar jikhlem. Fuddem tannem apli rajdhani dil'lik haddlea uprant ofgannistan ho mogol samrajeachoch ek bhag zalo. He fuddlim donxim vorsa ofgannistanak svotontr oxem rajki ostitv naslem. Ofgannistanantolo hindukuxachea udente koddlo vatthar hindustanantlea moglam kodden axil'lo zalear herat ani sestanocho vatthar sofavid hea iऱannachea ghoranneam kodden axil'lo. Kondhorovixim dogam-i modim vad choltalo. Sotravea xenkddeachea modheak sofavidamni kondahar ani heratocher zoit melloilem.Otthravea xenkddeachea survek saun ofgannistanant svotontrotayechi kolpona zolmak aili.

1709 vorsa hottaki ghilojhi he ttollyecho fuddari mirvoiyokhan hannem irannachea subhedara add zhuz ubarolem. Tannem 1715 vorsa kondhar jikhlem. 1716 to heratchea obdali ttoleamni iranna add bondd kelem. 172 vorsa mirvoiyokhanacho put muhmod hannem irannantlea isfahanacher ghuri ghali.Irannocho namnecho nadiroxoha hannem ofgannancher zoit melloun 1737 vorsa kondahar ani kabulacher aplo xek gazoilo. Tachea uprant ofgann sordaramni ohmodoxah obdalik kondaharocho raza kelo. Hannem ofgannistanak ostitvant haddlem. Hannem hindustanacher boreach fautt ghureo ghaleo. 1761 che loddayent tannem panipot hanga morattheancher zoit melloilem.

Tachea uprant sot'ter ayil'lea timuroxohachea putambhitor sot'te khatir zhuzam pettlim. 19vea xenkddeant roxia ani grett britton hanchea modim ofgannistanocher xek gazouche khatir sort lagli.Roxia koddlean hindustanochi rakhonn korpa pasot brittixank ofgannistan aplea hatant douropachi goroz axil'li. He sorticho porinnam' mhollear britton ani ofgann hanche bhitor tin loddayo zaleo 1878 vorsa ofgannistanocho xeroli brittixanchi sot'ta manun gheunk toyar zalona; haka lagun porot brittix soiny kabul meren gelem, punn hyai fautt tanchi toxich kot'tol kel'lean tankam fattim sorche poddlem.

1880 vorsa brittixamni obdur rohman hachem omiropod many kelem, punn ofgannistanochem poraraxttr sombondanchem niyontronn svota kodden dourolem. Obdodul rehmanan ofgannistanant ektontri karbar chalu kelo. Tacheach kallant 1893 vorsa sor marttimor ddyurondd hannem ofgannistan ani hindustan hanchea bhitorleo ximo tharaileo.Uprant hobibul'la, omanul'lan , muhm'mod nadiroxoha he omir zale. Omanul'la sot'ter yetkoch tannem ofgannistanchea svotontr rajeachi ghoxnna keli ani brittixancher ghuri ghali. (1919).Hakach ofgann-brittix hanchea bhitorl'li tisri loddai oxem mhonnttat. Hi loddai rokhddich sompli, punn brittixamni fattim sorun ofgannistanchea svotontr ostitvak manyotai dili.Omanul'lan boreoch somajik sudaronna keleo. Burkho pod'dot bond korop, bailank xikxonn, heo tantleo kaim mukhel. Tachea uprant sot'ter ayil'lea nadiroxohache razouttint ofgannistanochem somvidhodan toyar zalem, punn tacho rokhddoch khun zalo. Tacho putnnoyo muhom'mod zhohiroxoha sot'ter ailo (1933).

1973 meren toch omir urlo. Tachea kallant mhotvacheo dex sudaronnecheo kareavolli ghoddleo. 18 zuloi 1973 vorsa doxant kranti zaun rajexai kabar zali. Sordodar muhom'mod daudokhan odhyokx zalo. Rogtohin kranti uprant sot'ter ayil'loya daudokhanan 1977 vorsa aplea soireank ani borea magteank aplea montrimonddollant ghetle ani ektontri karbar cholounk laglo. Hacho porinnam' mhollear dexbhor khun, donge ani rajki andolonank nett choddlo. Ten'na zal'lea bonddant dabhdokhanacho khun zalo ani 27 epril 1978 disa ofgannistanachem lokxai prozast'tak zolmak ailem. Nur mohom'mod toraki ho dexacho karbar cholounk laglo.

Tachea hata khal babrak karmol ani hofizul'la omin vavurotale. Torakichea kallant dexant marksovadi pod'doticheo somaz sudaronna zaleo. 14 sopttembor 1979 disa toraki ani hofizul'la hanchea bhitorlea zhogddeacho porinnam' torakichea khunant zalo. Omin ani tachea her vangddeank hea vellar zal'lea loddayent mornn ailem. Babrak karmol zo roxieutten axil'lo to dodexacho mukheli zalo. 1981 vorsa karmol sot'teuylean demvlo ani kexttamandod sot'ter ailo. Itle mojgotim ofgann bonddkhoranchem (muzahidin) roxiyn soiny add zhuz chaluch axil'lem. Kitlexech ofgann-nirvasit alaxiro gheunk irann ani pakistanant pollun gele. Roxiyn soiny thoinchean 1988 vorsa nojibul'lache razoutti vellar portem roxiant vochpak bhair sorlem. Februvari 1989 meren soineacho nimnno pongodd roxiant portolo.

Rajy veustha[बदल]

Visavea xenkddea poilim ofgannistanant raza ani tanchea kuttumbantti sot'ta choltali. 1923 ani 1931 vorsa don somvidhanam (ghottna) toyar zalim; zatuntlean soglli sot'ta vonxporomporen yeupi rajeachea hatant dili. 1964 chea somvidhanan karyokari (executive), vidhimonddoll (legislature)ani nyaisonxtha (judiciary) oxem sot'techem vikendrikoronn kelem, punn rajexai toxach axil'li. 1973 to zal'lea loxkori bondda uprant 1964 chem somvidhan rod'd kelem ani prozast'takachi thapnnuk keli. Februvari 1977 to ‘loya jirga’ hea sorvochch vidhimonddollan nomvem somvidhan toyar kelem punn tem-i 1978 tolea bondda uprant rod'd kelem. 1979 vorsa roxien hanga somazovadi sorkarachi bunead ghalun dili ani kholk (lokancho) pokx ho ekuch kaidexir pokx ostitvant urlo.

Afgannistanochi rajyopd'dot kendri-i asa. Proxasonachea sompeponnak lagun dexache 27 prant keleat. Dor prantacher xason cholouche khatir ek rajyopal asta. Xaramni ani gamvamni lokamni venchun dil'le protinidhi rajy karbhar choloitat. Dexabhitorolo kaido ani suveustha samballopachem kam' bhitrolem polis khatem korta, zache odhikar ghorkhatea kodden asat. Dexachi rakhonn korpi soineacher poilim razache odhikar choltale punn 1978 – 79 chea bondda uprant krantikari monddoll (Revolutionary Council) ani tache fuddari soineacher niyontronn dourotat.

Orthik sthiti[बदल]

Udyegik nodrentlean ofgannistan ek pattim asil'lo dex. Sodeak roxiechea palvak lagun hangachea udeogank borem fattboll mell'llam. Punn on'n, kapus, lokor hea gozalimni mat ofgannistanak konnachi modot lagna. 80 % xromboll (labour force) xetkamant asa. 80% poros chodd lok xetveusayacher adarun asat. Choddxi zoman pikaulli khatir upegi na. Dongri vattharantoli tonnachim mollam gorvank chorpa khatir upegi thartat. Hindukuxache ut'toreuttentoli zomin xeta khatir samki bori asa. Choddant chodd zomin pikaullikhala haddpache yotn chalu asat. Lokanchem mukhel pik mhollear gomv. Te bhair tandull, barli, kapus, bitt, ums, moko, jvari, bajri, mosur, tombakhu hea sarkim pikaim hanga zatat.Bottatt, kande, mirsang, ttomatt, kobi, gazor hea sarkea bhajipaleanchi borinch xetam asat. Follam khatir ho dex namvazola. Hanga borepoiki drakxam, kallongam, zordallu, okrodd, ddallimb, sofrochond,kellim, mosombi, sontram hanchem-i utpadon zata.

Follancho upeg choddso nireata khatir zata. Poxupalon ho lokancho dusro mukhel ud'deg. Dongri vatthar ani thoim vaddpi tonn haka lagun ho veusai mottea promannant cholta. Menddhram hem hangachem mukhel poxupalonachem zonaur. Hanga turkomen zatiche ghodde, untt ani gaddvam hanchoi boroch vepar cholta.Ofgannistanant kollso, lokhonn, tambem, xixem, zost hanchi santthounn asa. Halinch hanga roxiyn ximelagim soimik vayuchi vhodd santthounn asa oxem somzolam.1970 chea xeuttak meren ofgannistanak poryotton dhondeak lagun borench porki cholon mellttalem. Dex sobit axil'lean poryotton dhondeak tenko divche khatir hottelam ani ogroxallo bandil'leo. Punn rajki osthirotayek lagun sodea tori poryotton dhondeachi vadd zaunk na.Arvil'le udeog dhonde niktech ofgannistanant pauleat ani choddxe xetki ani gorvamvixinche asat. Sodoglleant mhotvacho mhollear kapus karkhano.

He bhair ximitt, follam ddobeamni ghalun tim nireat korop, osle udyeg dhonde choltat. Halinch sarem, sakor, khaupachem tel hanche dhonde voir sorunk lagleat. Eka kallar ofgannistanacho omerike kodden boroch vepar zatalo. Sodeak lokor ani kapsachea bodlak tankam roxie koddlean gazholin ani arvil'lea tontrogineanacher adaril'lim yontram mellttat. Ofganni hem hangachem cholon asa.

Yeradari ani soncharonn[बदल]

Afgannistanant relve nat ani udkantlean yeradari korpa sarke zolmargoi nat. 2,600 kimi. Lambayeche ddambri roste asat. Ani 15,373 kimi.Lambayeche sade roste asat. Mukhel rosto mhollear gojhni ani kondhar modlean pasar zaupi , kabul ani herat hankam zoddpi marg. Ho rosto omerikechea palvan bandil'lo. 1977 vorsa meren 26,100 vepari ani 38,400 sadim vahnam axil'leachi nond zalea.Antororaxttri-i margacher provas korpi eriana ofgann eorolain, hi hangachi mukhel hovai somstha. Dexabhitor hovai yeradari korpi somstha mhollear bokhtor ofgann eorolain. Kabul hanga mukhel antororaxttri-i vimanotoll asa. Herat, kondhar, mozhor-e-xorif, kunddujh, zol'lalabad, mozhor hangai vimanotoll asat.Ofgannistanant 35,000 voir ttelifon asat ani 221 postt karealoyam, khobramptram ani nemallim sorkarachea porvanogen choltat. Tankam rajki motam uktaupacho odhikar na.

Lok ani somaz jinn[बदल]

1980 che zongonnone promann hangachi loksonkhea 2,20,37,700 itli asa.Mukhel zomat mholear puxtu je hangache niz ofgann. Hanchem promann purai loksonkhyechea sumar 60% voir asa. Durrani, ghilojhi, mohm'mod ani xinvara heo hea zomaticheo upzati. Tajik zomatiche lok sumar 30 % asat. Ujhbek 5 % ani uril'le mogol, hozara, ani chohar oimak zomatiche asat. 99 % lok islamoponthi, tantle 80 % sun'ni. Te bhair hozara xia ani istrail ponthachey lok asat. Kuttumb pod'dot pitrisot'tak. Ghorchea zannttea monxank man ditat. Lognam ani bakichim natim gotim zomati bhitroch kortat. Gamvgirea vattharantolim ghoram matyechea vittanttim ani sopatt pakheanchim astat. Boreachoxa ghoram bhomvtonni ghottmutth vomyo asat. Drakxam, sofrochondam hanche molle ghoram bhomvtonni astat. Kaim gamvamni bhouxik nhanngoram asat. Gamvchea mukheleak ‘molik’ nazalear ‘sordar’ oxem mhonnttat. Haka gamvchem lok venchun ditat. Kaim lok bokodd, menddhram ani her gorvam gheun gamvagamvani heddttat. Hanchi jinn sadi ani boreach koxttanchi asta. Untt hem hea lokanchem mukhel vahon. Tombu hem tanchem ghor. Oxa bhoupi chomeank ‘kam'’ mhonnttat. Borech ‘kam'’ ekttham-i yetat ten'na taka ‘khel’ mhonnttat. Vott'tt loksonkhyechea 10 % voir xaramni raupi lok mat songhttit asat. Hangacheo bailo burkhea kheriz bhomvtona distat. Gamva poros xaramni don va tachea poros chodd bailo korpachi protha chodd disun yeta. Halim him protha komi zaupachim chinham distat.Ofgann lokanchea jeunnant xit, mams, kombddi, tanteam, kande lonni, chiz hancho aspavo asta. Chea sarkem pey borench lokpriy asa. Follanchi hea lokank bhovo audd. Suti lamb xortt,tacher zakitt, pamyant datt vhanno nazalear butt oxe te nhestat. He lok soil pizam' ani tokler topi nazalear munddaxe bandtat. Ximyachea disamni kott ghaltat. Bailam-i soil, angdhampopi nhesonn nhestat. Xaramni ani sudaril'lea vattharamni ostontechea ani yuropi-i nhesnnacho probhavo boroch disunk lagla. Hangachea kolancher vingodd vingodd somskritayecho probhavo asa. Purvil'lea kallantole kolakusoricher hoddppa, bekttriyon, sesoniyon, grik sarkea kolancho probhavo asa. Kuxann kallantole boudhdostup ani bakichi boudhd somskritayentoli xilpokola disun yeta. Borech kodden ozontthachem dhortecher korantil'lim ‘lenni’ sampoddleant. Moxidi, thonddim, minar hancher iranni pod'doticho probhavo dista. Kabul, gojhni, kondahar, mozhor-e-xorif, herat hea xaramni porneo kolakusori samball'lleat. Hangachem songit, chodd korun loksongit udentechea songit. Pod'doti sarkench asa.Jhithor namvachem tontuvady ani chamddeachi toyar kel'lim vadeam he lok vaprotat. Ofgann lokank nachachi borich audd asa. ‘ott'tton’ ho hangacho raxttri-i nach. Ghoddeancher bosun khellpacho ‘bujh kaxi’ ani longddi falun khellpacho ‘ghosai’ he khell hanga chodd lokpriy asat. Gamvgirea vattharamni kusticho khell borech lok khellttat. 21 marchak, ‘no ruzha’ ho novea vorsacho poilo dis,egosttantolo ‘zoxn-i-isteklal’ ho svotontrota dis ani romzan id aऩi her dhormik sonn ani utsou dobajean monoitat.

Xikxonn[बदल]

Afgannistanant sakxorotechem promann samkench unnem mhollear fokot 12% asa. Zogant hea dexacho kromank hevixim 127 vo lagta. Bailam'modim sakxorotechem promann chodd unnem asa. Pondra vorsa pirayeveleo 90%bailo ani 88 % dadle borounk vachunk nokllo.7 te 15 vorsam merenochem 9 vorsanche xikxonn soktichem asa. Mullavi, modli ani uncheli oxeo tin pamvddeaveleo xalla asat. Mullavea pamvddea velea 3,371 xallamni nond zalea. Xikxonn puxtu ani dari hea bhasantlean ditat. Xikxonnacher sorkarachem purai niyontronn asa.Unchelea pamvddeavelem xikxonn 1946 to chalu zal'lea kabul vixv videaloya koddlean cholta. Nangorochoddh hem dusrem vixvovidealoi. Vixvovidealoyamni xikpi bhurge samkech unne asat. 1977 meren dha lakh lokam fattlean fokot 220 bhurge vixvovidealoyant nond zal'le. Ofgannistanantole borechoxe videarthi xikxonna khatir omerika, britton, ostont zormoni, frams,bharot, polondd ani kendda sarkea dexamni asat. Xikxonnacho prosar chodd zaunk na haka lagun hea dexache udrogotint borinch addmelli aileant. Puxtu ani far bhaxa ani sahityH hangache lok sumar 20 vingodd vingodd bhaxa uloitat. Choddxe veuhar puxtu ani farsi bhaxentlean zatat. Heo donuy bhaxa uloupi lok 55% chea voir asat. Kauy, totvoginean,dhormoxastr, itihas hanche velem pornem sahity parxi bhaxentlean boroilam. Puxtu sahity atthvea xenkddea saun melltta. Gojhnovichea kallar onsari ho namnecho rajdorobari kovi zaun gelo.Firdodosin (935-1020) ‘xohanama’ hem mohakauy boroilem. Toimurolongachea kallar zami (1414-92) hannem sadhusontancher, kurannantlea totvancher, pronneatmok, odubhut oxa vixeancher sumar 46 gronth boroile. Hafijh obu hannem zogacho itihas ani xorfin oli yajhdi hannem toimurolongachea jinnecher pondravea xenkddeant borpaull keli. Puxtu bhaxentole mhon sahityik sotravea xenkddeant zaun gele. Mongla add zhuzunk svotontrotaye khatir tollmollin boroupi khuxholokhan khotok ho hea kallantolo kovi, ‘raxttrokovi’ daun asa. Sorkaran chalu kel'lea 23 vachnaloyanchi nond zalea. Nirkxorotek lagun boryil'lea sahiteachi nirmonni choddxi zaina.

Mhotvachim tholla[बदल]

Bamian, begram' him thollam boudhd ghoghnneank lagun namvajil'lim asat. Gojhni, herat, mozhor-e-xorif him xaram polloupa sarkim. Hea xaramni mogol somskritayecheo kuru sampddottat. Kabul hem rajdhanichem xar ani kondhar hem-i mukhel xar. Baghlan, gulbohar ani pul-i-khumri him xaram thoim axil'loya karkhaneank lagun ujvaddant aileant.

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