Andhra Pradex

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ह्या विषयावयर देवनागारींत बरयिल्लें पान वाच : आंध्र प्रदेश



Rock-cut Lord --Buddha-- Statue at Bojjanakonda near Anakapalle of Visakhapatnam dist in AP
Kuchipudi, dance by Yamini Reddy
A Vegetarian Andhra Meal served on important occasions

Andhra Prodex bharti-i songhrajeantolem ek ghottok rajio. Hem rajio bhartache dokxinnek voslam. KxetrfollH 2,75,068 chov. Kim. LoksonkheaH 5,35,49,673. Rajdhani Hoidrabad, bhas telugu, sakxorota 29.73%. Okxanx ani rekhanx ut'tor 12˚ 14˚ te 19˚ 54' ani udent 76˚ 50' 86˚ 50'. Hea rajeache ut'torek mharaxttr, modhyoprodex ani orisa, dokxinnek tamillnaddu ani kornattok, ostontek kornattok ani mharaxttr tor udentek bongalocho upsagor yeta. Andhr rajeak 960 kimi. Lambayechi doreadeg asa.

Bhuimvornnon[बदल]

Sadaronnponnan andhr prodex tin soimik vibhagant moddtta. Doreadegevoilo sokoil, sopatt moidani vatthar, udent ghattant axil'leo viskollil'leo dongracheo volli ani ostontekoddlea soheadrikoddlo dongor pottharacho vatthar, tor suttavim khoddpam, viskollun poddil'leo dongul'leo hanni bhoril'lo vatthar, tor suttavim khoddpam, viskollun poddil'leo dongul'leo hamnni bhoril'lo vatthar he andhr prodexache tin soimik vibhag zaun asat. Ixanyekoddolo doreadegevoilo vatthar oxir asa. Doreadegevoilo modlo bhag godavori ani krixnna nhoimyank lagun pikall zala. Hea vattharank hea nhiomyancho tribhujprodex mhonnttat. Dorea degevoilo dokxinn vatthar sokoilea panvddeache zomnicho asa. Noirityesaun ixanyemeren patllil'lea udent ghattache 900 te 1500 mi. Unchayechea dongrant velikondda ani nol'lomoli hea dongrancheo volli doreak somantor yetat. Hea dongraullinche ostontek nondhall degonn poddtta. Hea rajeachea noirity ani dokxinn bhagant eramoli, xexacholom' ani palkondda (900 mi.) dongor volli asat. Agneyek nagri dongor asat. Stholiprai vattharachi ut'toreuttenochi unchai sumar 450 te 600 mi. Tor dokxinneuttenochi unchai sumar 300 te 450 mi. Asa. Ho vatthar tambdde remveche bhorsonnen ghoddla. Hi zomin grenaitt ani nais hancheposun toyar zalea. Ukteo-boddkeo dongul'leo, kantteanchim zhopam-zhuddpam, sukil'le udkache provah hankam lagun ho vatthar tollopttea soddeavori dista.

Godavori ani krixnna nhoimyank lagun hea rajeacho boroch motto vatthar udkall ani pikall asa. Godvori hi hea prodexantoli mukhel nhoim asun ti hea rajeantlean 720 kimi. Vhanvon bongalchea upsagorak melltta. Rajmohendri hanga ticho tribhujprodex suru zata. Krixnna nhoinchi mukhel upnhoim tungobhodra, kornattok rajeantlean ayil'li pen'nar, orisa rajeantlean ayil'li vonxdhara ani nagouli heo nhoimyo andhr prodexantlean vhanvtat.


Hovaman[बदल]

Andhroprodexant gimachea disamni tapman 37˚ se. Te 44˚ se. Meren asta. Kaim zagear te 50˚ se. meren vota. Ximyalleachea disantlem tapman 16˚ se. Te 19˚ se. meren asta. Doreadegevoilea vattharant ximyallo ani gim' chodd khor nasta. Andhr prodexak dokxinn ostont mansunakoddlean don-tritianx tor ut'tor udent mansuna koddlean ek-tritianx paus melltta. Ut'torechea dongrall vattharant 110 te 125 sem'mi. Paus zhoddtta. Bongalchea upsagorantlean yeupi vadllank lagun hea vattharant nettacho paus zhoddtta. Telonganna railosima (onontpur, chit'tur, koddoppa, kornul he jilhe) ani doreadege voilea vattharamni pausachem promann kroman unnem zait vota.Bongalchea upsagorantlean yeupi vadoll-varem andhr prodexak vhodd luksann dita. Aizouyor zal'lea vadoll-vareak lagun andhrak orthik luksanni vangddach jivithani-i sonschi poddlea. Vonospot ani monzat

Hea rajeacho 22.5% vatthar ranachea va vonospotichea xekatolla asa. Telonganna, vixakhapott'ttnnom', godavori jilhe ani nol'lomoli porvot hanga choddxim ranam asat. Tatunt sagvan, rozvudd, settin vudd, modd'ddi, yepi sarke rukh, toxench kondde, kochchhounxri hanchim bonam distat. Rajeantlean vonospoti savn (ranantli) son 1981-82 vorsa, hea rajeak 157.177 rupeancho nivvoll faido zalo. Bibtto vag, chit'to, landdgo, kolo, vamsvel, char xingachim hornnam, sambor hea rajeachea ranant asat. Te bhair gorvam, mhosram, bokddeo, meddhram him zonavoram lok postat.

Itihas[बदल]

oitrey brahmonnant andhr prodexantlea lokancho ul'lekh soglleant poilim melltta. Megesthenisan chondrgupt mourea adlo andhr sompn'n axil'leachem mhollam. Dhonkottok uprant omravoti hi tea kallant andhr prodexachi rajdhani asli. Andhr podexantole mull lok ario vonxkullache asle. Uprant te vindio porvotache dokxinnek aile, thoim tancho her vonxiyavangodda sombond ailo. I. So. Po. Chouthea xotmanant zoim achary bhodrobahu aplea onuyayamvangodda hea bhagantlean gel'leacho ul'lekh melltta. Somratt oxokachea fatraptteant andhr prodexacho ul'lekh yeta. I. So. Po. Sumar 225 vorsam simuk razan poitthonn hanga satvahon ghoranneachi thapnnuk keli oxem zannkar mantat. Satvahonamni sumar saddecharoxim vorsam rajio kelem. Yogonexri xatokornni,hal, goutmiputr xatokrnni, pulumayi he hea vonxkullyentole namneche raza asle. Tanche razouttint kola, sahiteachi khub udrogot zali. Hea kallant tancho romon samrajeakodden sombond ailo,toxench torsadi khatir lagpi polad andhrantlean nirgot zal'lean yuropakoddenoi tancho khasa sombond urlo. Tisrea xotmanant xok, pol'lou, youn hanchea vangdda zhujpak poddil'lean satvahonanchi razvott ostak geli ani tea zagear nag, brihotpalain, salonkain, ikxvaku him ghorannim udeak ailim. Satvahonanchem mull manddlik axil'lea ‘ ikxvaku ’ rajghorannean nagarzunokondda degnnant xri porvotalagim vizoipuri hanga apli rajdhani bandli. Boudhd dhormachem xikxonn, kola hanchem tem kendr mantale.

Hyuentsongan, andhrache ixanyek gong, udentekodden vengiche chaluky, dokxinnek chol, pol'lou ani her rajeam axil'leacho ul'lekh kela. Son 850 chea odmasak vengichea chalukeam'modolo vijeadity (tisro) hannem sodeachea andhr prodexantolo borochoso vhoddlo vatthar aplea xekatolla haddil'lo. Te uprant tannem apli rajdhani vengithaun vizoivaddeak vheli. I. So. 1022 te 1063 meren chaluky raza rajrazonorendr hannem rajmohendri hi apli rajdhani korun vengidexacher rajy kelem. Chaluky razamni mottea promannant vivdanank asro dilo. Telugu mohabharotacho lekhok non'noi bhott chalukeanchech sevek axil'lo.Chalukeachea kallant raxttrokutt, chol, kakti-i hanchi razoutt andhrachea vingodd vingodd vattharamni asli. Andhrant vorongoll hanga i. So.1150 te 1325 hea kallant kakti-i razamni rajio kelem. Kakti-i hem mull raxttrokutt aslem. Punn tem rokhddench andhr lokanche jinnent aspaulem. Vengiche chaluky jen'na tomillonadduntlea chol razanche gadyer aplo ho hokk sangpak lagle, ten'na donuy sot'tam'modim songhorx suru zalo. Hea songhorxant kaktiyamni chalukeank chola add adar dilo. Kaktiyamni kel'lea adarak lagun chaluky yuvraz kulot'tung hea namvan chol rajeache gadyer boslo oxe toren chaluky don prodexacho karbhar polloupak lagle. Haka lagun tanchem andhravelem lokx unnem zalem. Kaktiyamni hea gozalincho faido gheun purai andhr aplea thekatolla haddlo. Gonnpotidevo (1202-62), tachi choli rudrom'madevi (1262-92) ani ticho natu protaporudr dusro (1292-1323) he kakti-i vonxantole mhotvache rajyokrte zaun gele. 1323 to dil'lichea tuglok sultanan kaktiyamadd zhuzun andhr aplea tabeant ghetlo. Horil'lea kakti-i rajghoranneasaun anik char lhan rajghorannim udeak ailim; hatuntlea vizoinogor rajghorannean sumar donxim vorsam muslomani sot'teadd zhuz dilem. 23 zanevari 1565 disa bollixtt dokhkhonchea sultanan vizoinogorchea soineak ‘ talikotta ’ hanga haroilem.

Dusrevotten islami ghuryecho nett denvtokoch redd'ddi ghorannean andhr prodexacher aplo tabo melloilo (1328-1424). Krixnndeurai ho vhodd somratt 1509 te 1530 mojgotim andhracher rajy kortalo. Tannem vivdanancho adar kelo. Techpori telugu sahiteant tannem molachi bhor ghali. 1565 to vizoinogorachem samrajy nax pausokoch muslomanamni andhrantoli sot'ta hatasoli. Bohmoni rajeantlea telugu bhaxik telongonnacher kuli kutuboxohachi nemnnuk zali. Bohamoni rajeache kuddke poddle ten'na kuli kutuboxohan golkonddeank kutuboxayichi thapnnuk keli. 1580 meren andhr prodexacho choddso vatthar kutuboxoha kodden ailo. Tache razouttint dokhkhonchea urducho andhrant prosar zalo. Kutuboxohache huxar sordar aknn'nna ani madnn'nna hamnni rajyokarobharant sudaronna korpak vhodd yos zoddlem. Techpori tamnni telugu sahity ani kolek asro dilo. Sodeachea telongonn vattharant aizuy kutuboxayicho probhavo chodd dista. 1687 to golkondda ourongojeban jikhlo ani oxe toren andhracho mogol razouttikodden sombond ailo. Ourongojeban osof zohak dokhkhonocho subhedar mhunn nemlo. Ourongojebachea mornna uprant mogol vonxiyam'modim upraxil'lea tonttea, zhogddeancho faido gheun tannem bondd kelem ani svotachea svotontr nizamoxayechi thapnnuk keli. Heach vellar morattheanchi sot'ta vaddik lagil'li. Sumar xombor vorsanchea kallkhoddant nizam'-morattheache sombond kaim fautt ixttagotiche tor kaim fautt dusmanokayeche urle.

1611 to mochhlipott'ttnnom' hanga brittixamni kutuboxayeche manyotayen ek bhongsall suru keli. Toxench solabotozongan frenchank aplo kaim vatthar toddun dilo ani french soineacho adar ghetlo.1628 to ddoch lokamni ostont godauri jilheant madhovpolaim' hanga lokhnni samanacho karkhano suru kelo. Yuropiyon lok oxe toren andhrant rigle. French-brittix hancheabhitorlea zhuzant monant nasunoi nizamak brittixancho pakho gheuncho poddlo. Sumar 1795 to nizamamni brittixank gonzam', vixakhaptt'ttonnom', godauri, krixnna, gunnttur he jilhe tostrip mhunn bhettoile. Ttipu sultanachi razoutt somptokoch nizamachea vantteak ayil'le bel'lari, kornul, onontopur ani koddoppa he jilhey tannem 1800 to brittixank divn uddoile.

1857 che cholloulli uprant andhrancho tabo istt inddia komponikoddlean brittix sorkaran ghetlo. Tea vellar modras ilakheant telongannacho aspavo axil'lem, hoidrabad sonsthan ani choddso andhr aspavl'lo. Telugubhaxik lok tin-char rajki-i vibhagant ximpddun poddil'le. Bhartachea svatontrea uprant nizaman bhartant vilin zaupachem nhoikarolem, ten'na polis-karvayevorvim tacho vatthar loxkori niyontronnakhala haddlo. 1952 to ba. Ramokrixnnaravo ho hoidrabad rajeacho poilo mukhelomontri zalo.

Modras ilakheant axil'lo andhr vegllo kaddcho he khatir andhromhasobha 1913 savn chollvoll kortali. Telugu-bhaxik andhr rajeachi thapnnuk zaunchi hekhatir pott'tti xriramolu hannem 58 disancho upas kelo. Upas kortasotonach taka mornn aslem. 1 ekttobor 1953 disa ikra jilheanchem novem andhr rajy (rajdhaniH kornul) ostitvant aslem. Bhaxavar prantrochonekhala ostitvant ayil'lem andhr prodex hem bhartantolem poilem rajio aslem. Tti. Prokaxom' andhr prodexacho poilo mukhelomontri mhunn venchun ailo, punn ovisvasacho tharavo tachea montrimonddolla add manun ghetil'lean tachea sorkaran rajinamo dilo. 1955 to andhr prodexant kangres yunaittedd frontt venchun ailo ani gopall redd'ddi hea rajeacho mukhelmontri zalo. Modlea kallant mixra komixonan bel'lari jilheacho kanddibhaxik prant mhoisur (kornattok) rajeak dilo (me 1953).Hoidrabad rajdhani axil'le telonganna, vegllem rajy mhunn mellchem oso yotn chen'na redd'ddi ani her lokamni kelo punn tatunt tankam yos mell'llemna. Rajyopunorghottona somitiche xifaroxipromann novhembor 1956 to andhr (11 jilhe) ani telonganna (9 jilhe) mellun andhr prodex ghoddlo. Novea andhr prodex rajeacho poilo mukhelomontri zaupacho man sonjivo redd'ddik mell'llo. Andhrantlean telonganna vegllem kaddpachi chollvoll mat chalu urli.


Rajyovevostha[बदल]

Proxasoki-i kamant suttsuttitoponna haddchekhatir andhr prodexant onontpur, chit'tur, koddoppa, udent godavori, gunnttur, krixnna, kornul, nel'lur, prokaxom', xrikakulom',vixakhaptt'ttonnom', vijeanogorom', ostont godauri, adilabad, hoidrabad, ronga redd'ddi, korimonogor, khom'mom', mohbubonogor, medok, nolgondda, nizamabad, vorongoll he tevis jilhe ghoddoileat. Andhr prodexache vidhanosobhent 295 vangddi venchun kaddttat. Andhranchi vidhan porixod 1 zun 1985 vorsa borkhast zali. Loksobhent 41 tor rajsobhent 18 vangddi andhr prodexache protinidhitv kortat.Hoidrabad xarant rajeachem uchch neayaloi asa toxench jilha ani taluka pamvddeacher nyaidanachem kam' cholta.

Orthik sthiti[बदल]

Andhr prodex aple soimik girestkayecho upeg apli orthik sthiti ghott korpak korta. Rajeantole sumar 74% ttokke lok xet-dhondeant asat. Krixnna, godauri,pen'nar ani her nhomyam deganchea pikall vattharant tandull, ums, kellim, ambe, him follam ani pikaulli zatat. Telonganna vattharant kapus, tombakhu, mirsang, hollod, jvari bajri ani her dhaneam zatat. Dokhkhonochem potthar ani railosima vattharantole tambdde zomnint kullid, bhiknnam, don dabichem dhany, foll-follavoll zata. Kaim udkall vattharant kapus, tombakhu, ums tor heach soimak vibhagantlea zambhea fatrache zomnint nal'l, supari him kodd'ddonnam, follam ani kaim vattharant tandull pikta. Sadaronnoponnan andhr aple gorjeporos chodd tandull pikoita. 1981-82 to tandllachem utpadon 11.4 doxolkx tton zalem. 9.22 doxolkx hekttor zomin foll-follaullikhala asun 13.04 doxolkx hekttor zomin lagouddi sokol haddlea. Lagouddikhala axil'lea purai zomnintoli 26% zomin bhat-pikakhal, 20% jovarikhal tor 15.9% bajri, nasnno, rall, moko, vori, sava, gomv hea pikaullikhala asa. Kalve, bandh, tolleo, bamyo ani her ximpnnaullichea sadnamvorvim andhrantolo xetkar vorsak tin favttim legit pik kaddtta. Chokrivadoll, humvar, dukoll hea soimik sonkxttancho tras hea rajeank khub favtt sonscho poddla.Tacho porinnam' xet-pikaullicher zala. 1972 to dukoll poddil'lean 600 kott rupeanchem luksann andhr prodexak somschem poddlem.

Khoniz somopt'ti[बदल]

Andhr prodexantole soglleant porne fator arkiyon kallantle asun tatunt gulabi ani gobrea rongache grenaitt, nais ani thoddea promannant dharvadd vorgache hornoblendd ttalk, kloraitt, maika, xistt, lohi, kvarttozhaitt, khonddalaitt, nefelin, samyenaitt he fator mellttat. Hea arkiyonokalin fatrant lokhonn, mongniz, tambem, kromaitt ani her dhatu toxench obhrok, beril, grafaitt, kayenaitt, silimonaitt ani her zaitim udyegik mhotvachim khonizam mellttat. Khom'mom', odilabad, korimonogor, vorongoll ani ostont godavori hanga 3908 doxolkx tton kollxache santthe asat. Odilabad, hoidrabad, mehbubonogor, kornul, koddppa, gunnttur nolgondda ani krixnna hangam 2,018 doxolkx tton chun khoddiche santthe asat. Onontopur, korimonogor,adilabad, chit'tur, khom'mom', prokaxom', krixnna, kornul, koddppa hangam 390 doxolkx tton lokhnnache satthe asat. Vixakhaptt'ttonnom' hanga axil'le boksaittoche santthe 30 doxolkx tton asat.

Udkantli pikavoll[बदल]

Andhr prodexak 982 kimi. Lambayechi doreadeg mell'llea. Doreantolo sumar 32,000 chovo. Moil vatthar nustem marpakhatir vapropak melltta. Vorsak 4 lak tton nustem nustem'mari kendramvorovim dhortat. 1980 to 1,16,013 tton nustem doreant dhorlem. Kakinadda ani mochhliptt'ttonnom' hanga nustem'mari proxikxonn kendram asat. Sodea rajy sorkar, unch tontrogineanachea adaran oteadhunik ttrolor bandpacho vichar korta. Tebhair udkantoli nustemari korpak ek zodd nustemari proklp rajy sorkaran hatant ghetil'lo asun tacher 238.0 doxolkx rupea khorch yeupacho asa. Tekhatir somvsarik bonken 150.5 doxolkx rupeanchem rinn dilam. Andhr prodexantole 3.26 lakh lok nustemveusayant asat.

Poryotton[बदल]

Andhr prodexant axil'leo itihasik vastu, povitr deumondiram poryottokank akrxit korpi mhotvachim thollam zaun asat. Chit'tur jilheant tirupoti hangachem xri venkttexachem devull,bhodracholomochem xriramochondrachem devull, xrixoilom' hanga axil'lem mol'likarzunsvamichem devull, toxench ahobolom', xrikumokum' ani simacholom' hanchim deullam andhr prodexantolim mhotvachim ani namnechim deullam zaun asat.Hoidrabad-sikondorabad zodd-xaram, husen sagor, 1591 to bandil'lo char minar, usmania vivxrovideapitth, salarozong myujhiym', rajy myujhiym', artt gelri, helth myujhiym', nehru jielojikol park, birla mondor him hoidrabadantolim mukhel thollam.Hoidrabad saun 8 kimi. Ontracher axil'lo golkonndda kil'lo poryottonache nodren mhotvachem tholl asa. Namneche kohinur ani pitt hire golkonnddeache khonnint mellil'le.

Ud'deogdhonde[बदल]

Andhr prodexant ud'degodhondeanchi vadd nettan zait asa. 1988-89 chea odmasoptrokant udyegik karkhane ani khonizam hanchekhatir 62 kotti rupeanchi tojviz kel'li. Rajeant 649 modhyom' ani vhodd udyeg asun tatunt 3353.13 kotti rupeanchem bhanddoul gholltta. Hatuntlean 4.3 lakh lokank rojgaracheo sondi mell'lleat. 66534 lhan udyeg rajeant asun tatunt 878.23 kotti rupeanchem bhanddoul gholltta. Hatuntlean 6.25 lakh lokank rojgaracheo sondi mell'lleat. Hoidrabad ani vixakhaptt'ttonnom' him udyegodhondeache nodren mhotvachim kendram asat. Hanga moxin ttuls, sinthettik ddrogs, farmasyuttikls, vidyut yontram, botti, sarim, vidyut upkoronnam, vimanache bhag, ximitt, rosain aesobesttos, gaddeo, ximittaposun ghoddoupak yeupi vostunche karkhane asat. Hoidrabad xar yeradariche nodren favo tea zagear axil'lean choddxe sorkari ani khajgi karkhane thoim voir sorleat. Mochhliptt'ttonnom', vorongoll,dhormaurom', emingonur, goddhval, taddoptri hangachem hatmagachem kapodd, oghonnicheo xendreo, konddapl'li ani nirmoll hangachim khellnnim, hoidrabadochem bidrikam', zorkam', bhortokam', xingam ani hostidontacheo vostu, gunntturocho tombakhu, odilabadochem fornichor he kuttirodyegoi bore choltat. Gunntturcheo chini matyecheo vostu ani glasacho karkhano, nizamabadocho nizam' sakor karkhano singareni kotthanguddomcheo kollxam khonni sorkari karkhaneanchea kxetrant aspautat.

Jun 1977 meren andhr prodexant 51 udyegik vosahoti, 28 udyegik udrogot vibhagant asleo ani 20 udyegik vosahoti toxench char udyegik udrogot vibhagantolim kamam mullavea pamvddear aslim. Rajeant 6,00,000 lakh hatmag kendram aslim. Hea kendrant 1981-82 to 420 doxolkx mi. Hatmag toyar zal'le. Dexant toyar zaupi hatmagantole 20% hatmag andhr prodexantlean nireat zata.

Sigretti, chiruttam, sarem, sakor, bhat soddoup, bhata kunddeatolem tel kaddop, aesbesttosoche potre korop, lokhnnachem saman, tel xudhdikoronn hanche karkhane toxench lokhonn, obhrok slett, xahbadi forxi, songmorour, beraittos ani her khonizancher adaril'le udyegodhonde sodea andhrant voir sorleat. Hankam lagun andhrache orthoveusthek ghott fattboll mell'llam.

Ximpnnavoll ani urza[बदल]

1980-81 vorsa lhan ani vhodd ximpnnavoll proklpa vorvim andhr prodexantoli 1.259 doxolkx hekttor zomin udkacho lavo gheupak upkarotali. Tatuntoli 0.828 doxolkx hekttor zomin ximpnnaull kxetrakhal haddli. 1980-81 meren je mhotvache ximpnnaull proklp toyar zal'le tanchim namvam ani tank fuddlepromann asliH prokaxom' beraz (40,873 hekttor), tungobhdra hai leuhol kanal sttez-1 (48,198 hekttor), tungobhdra lo-leuhol kanal (60,298 hekttor), ke. Si. Kanal (0.122 doxolkx hekttor), kodom' (47,920 hekttor),nagarzunosagor (0.868 doxolkx hekttor) ani xriramosagor (0.2967 doxolkx hekttor) hea proklpacho vaur suru aslo. Lhan ximpnnaull proklpanchi udrogot korpak rajy-sorkaran somvsarik bonkecho adar ghetla. Hatunt 146 lhan ximpnnaull yeuzonni ani 200 pazhor tolavo hancho aspavo asun tanchi tank 2,32,403 hekttor zomnik udka purounn korpaitoli astoli (80-81). Rajeant udok ani uxnnotayeurovim vijechem utpadon zata. Mochchhokundd, tungobhdra, nizam' sagor, opor sileru, loor sileru, xrixoilom', nagarzunosagor, rampodosagor, inchepl'li, prannhita ani her proklpant udkaurovim vijechi nirmonni zata. Husenosagor, ramgunddom' ani telonganna toxench her proklpant uxnnotaye vorvim (ouxnnik) vijechi nirmonni zata. 1981-82 to 8,873.9 vijechi nirmonni zali. Rajeant 19,284 kheddeant viz purounn zali. Yeradari ani soncharonnH

1981-82 meren rajeant raxttri-i mohamarg (2357 kimi.), rajy mohamarg (8387 kimi.) mukhel jilhamarg (18072 kimi.) jilha porixod ani somiti marg (74, 930 kimi.) asle. Kar, jip, mottar, saikol, skuttor, ettorikxa, ttrekttor, bosi, ttrok, ttempo mellun 2,72,274 vahnam rosteamvelean ghollttalim.

Godavori kalvo, krixnna kalvo, bokingohem'm' kalvo, kornul-koddppa kalvo, kom'mapur kalvo he rajeantole ontorgot udkamarg asat. Udkamargachi vott'tt lambai 1845 kimi. Asa.Doreavelea udkamargacher vixakhaptt'ttonnom' ani kakinadda him mukhel bondram asat. Mochhliptt'ttonnom' bhimuniptt'ttonnom' krixnnaptt'ttonnom' ani kolingoptt'ttonnom' him-i doreadegeuyolim mhotvachim bondram asat. Rajeantlean 6,224 kimi. Lambayeche relve-marg geleat. Voltteoroche ut'torek dokxinn-purv relvecho tor modras ani gunnttur hanchea mojgotim dokxinn relvecho kaim bhag andhrant aspaula. Dokxinn modhy relvechem mukhealoi rajeantlea sikondorabad xarant asa. Rajeantolo antororaxttri-i vimanotoll hoidrabad hanga asa.Rajeant jim mukhel disallim ujvaddak yetat, tim fuddle toren asat. InglixH ddekkon kronikol-hoidrabad, inddiyon eksopres-hoidrabad, ani vizoivadda, hindu-hoidrabad, telguHandhroprobha- hoidrabad ani vizoivadda, andhr jeoti- vizoivadda, andhrobhumi-hoidrabad, inaddu-hoidrabad, vixakhaptt'ttonnom', vizoivadda ani tirupoti. UrduH siasot. HindiH milap- hoidrabad.

Lok ani somaz jivon[बदल]

1981 chea zongonnone promann 2,75,068 chovo. Kimi. Kxetrant 53,549,673 lok rautat. Dor chovo. Kimi. 194 lok poddttat. Dor 1000 dadleamfattlean 975 bailo rajeant asat. Loksonkhea vaddichem promann 7.82% ttokke asa. Sakxorotechem promann 29.73% asun rajeantolim mukhel somprkachi ani uloupachi bhas telugu asa. Kaim vattharant urduchoi vapor zata. 1961 chea zongonnonepromann rajeant hindu 88%, musloman 8%, ani kiristamv 4% asat. Andhr, bhil'l gondd, prodhan, xobor valmiki, koya, chenchu, erukul ani her prokaracheo sumar 31 vony adivasi zomati asun tancheo bhaso ani pottbhaso vegveglleo asat.

Ritrivaj[बदल]

Bhurgem zolmotokoch, baravea disa barso kortat. Bhurgeank pallnneant ghalun arti kortat. Hea vellar sovaxinn bailek hollod kukum' ani forall ditat. Monglaroti gaup hem andhr somskritayechem khaxeleponn zaun asa. Dor sonna-porbek oxim podam gaitat. Andhrant cholyechem logn mamebhavakodden va mamakodden zaupak xokta. Haka ‘ mamesombond ’ mhonnttat.Lognacho mattou maddachea chuddttamposun kortat. Lognachi vorat vhodd dobajean kaddttat. Ghorant koslem-i borem kary aslear dar nivll korun xennan saroitat.

Andhrant vorx rpratepoda hi porob vhodd urben monoitat. Tea disa godd, chicheche koll ani koddulimbachim fulam ghalun kel'lem ‘ pochchodd ’ namvachem pey soglloyank ditat. Ramnomichi porob nattkam, burrokotha sarkea kareavollimni monoitat. Xraunn mhoineant logn zal'leo choleo mongllarak ‘ nomu ’ mhollear gourichem vrot kortat. Xraunnantlea dusrea sukrarak sovaxinn bailo vorolkxmiurot kortat. Hea vrotant puza, upas ani holldikukum' he vidhi mukhel astat. Xravonn xudhd oxttomik mhakalicho dis sokoilea vorgantleo bailo monoitat. Bhadropod vody toyek ankvar choleo gourichem vrot kortat. Divallechi porob andhrantlea her khoinchyai vattharaporos telongannant umedin monoitat. Hollyechi porob fokot telongannantoch monoitat. Hea vellar dadle- bailo ekmekancher rong ximvrit holli khell rongmondir, nagarzunokondda gamvcho mithun, nottrazozhuz, mottvo yokx, ghonttasakx hangasl'lim songmorouri xilpam kolatmok asat. 1591 vorsa hoidrabad hanga kuli kutuboxah hannem bandil'lo ‘charminar ’, dha hozar lokank nomaz poddhpak suvat axil'li fatranchi mokkamoxid, golkonddacho kil'lo, vorongollchea kil'leachea provexodaralagim axil'lo kirtistombh, bageam' udean, choumhol, razachi kotthi, folkonuma mohol, salarozong myujhiym', usmania videapitthachi novi imarot ani her vastu oprup asat.

Andhr prodexantli chitrkola kaktiyanchea razouttint namnek pauli. Andhrantlea surveche chitrkolecher chalukeacho probhav poddla. Teravea xotmanant hangache chitrokolek manachi suvat mell'lli. Teravea ani sollavea xotmanantli, taddaptri ani lepakxi hangachi chitrokari namvajl'li asa. Choudavea xotmanantoli palnadd hangachim xilpochitram ani vorongolloche bhognauxex, andhr chitrokolecho unch pamvddo dakhoitat. E. Poidirazu, mokkaptt'tti krixnnomurti, pi. Tti.Redd'ddi, es. Vhi. Kam'mravo, lokxma gondd, kovita deuskor, norendrorai he chitrokar andhrant namna zoddun asat.

Andhrantole choddxe raza devbhokt axil'lean hanga murtikolechi ani devaloyachi vhodd udrogot zali. Vorongoll hangachi sohstrostombhi xivmondirantoli murt, nukab, ekvira-ghott'ttambik, monnikadevi heo xivxktiche devicheo murti, heo porne murtikolecheo dekhi zaun asat.Guddali gonddourom' ani dipile hangacheo songmexvor, xivparvoti ani nognexvor heo murti-i namvajl'leo asat.

Xikxonn[बदल]

andhr prodexant sakxorotechem promann 29.94% (1981) asa. Hea rajeacho xikxonnik itihas khub porno. Ikxvaku vonxiyachi nagarzun kondda degnnantoli vizoipuri hi rajdhani boudhd dhorm' ani kolevangoddach xikxonnachem kendr aslim. Difnagacharean vengi videapitthachi thapnnuk kel'leacho ul'lekh melltta. Rajeantolem poilem ukte videapitth 26 egostt 1982 disa hoidrabad hanga suru zalem. Bailankhatir axil'lem podmauti videapitth – tirupoti hanga 14 epril 1983 disa suru zalem.

1980-81 meren 40656 mullavea xallamni 53.68 lakh videarthi, 4782 uchch mullavea xallamnim 88.2 lakh videarthi, 3842 madhyomik xallamnim 8.92 lakh videarthi xikop ghetale. Tebhair 468 uchch madhyomik xalla ani 387 mohavidealoyam 80-81 meren rajeant aslim.

1980-81 meren fuddlim videapittham rajeant aslim. 1. Andhr prodex xetki videapitth rajendronogor, hoidrabad 2. Xri zovahorolal nehru tteknolojikol videapitth, hoidrabad 3. Hoidrabad videapitth, hoidrabad 4. Usmania videapitth, hoidrabad 5. Andhr videapitth, voltteyor (vixakhaptt'ttonnom') 6. Xri. Vyonkttexrvor videapitth, tirupoti 7. Kaktiya videapitth, vorongoll 8. Nagarzun videapitth, gunnttur 9. Xri krixnnodeurai videapitth, onontopur. Telugu sahityH

telugu bhaxek andhrobhaxa va ‘ tenugu ’ oxem-i mhonnttat. ‘ tenugu ’ mhollear mhomvauri godd oso orth zata. I. So. Po. Tisrea xotmanasaun telugu bhaxek svotontr rup mellpachi prokria suru zal'leachem dista. I. So. Sovea xotmanasaun ‘ telugu ’ bhaxechi khorea orthan udrogot suru zali. Telugu sahiteachea itihasache sadaronnoponnan sat kallkhondd zatat.1. Tomoyug (i. So. Po. 250 te i. So. 1000) 2. Poilo kallkhondd (1001 te 1150) 3. Dusro kallkhondd (1151 te 1500) 4. Tisro kallkhondd (1501 te 1700) 5. Choutho kallkhondd (1701 te 1850) 6. Arvil'lo kallkhondd (1851 te 1947) 7. Svatontrea- uprantocho kallkhondd (1947 uprant).

Tomoyug[बदल]

Telugu bhas aple poile ovosthent astona jim vingodd vingodd prokarochim gitam ani loksahity he bhaxent rochlem tem kallavangoddach na zal'lean hea kallkhonddak ‘ tomoyug ’mhonnttat. Bolbhaxa mhonnun telugu bhaxek ostitv mellttokoch legit he bhaxecher somskritacho sorlloponnan va her toren porinnam' zait raulo. I.So.Po. Tisrea xotmanasaun andhrant boudhd dhormiyancho probhavo vaddlo. Hea vellar pali bhaxek lagim axil'li prakrit boudhdanchea procharachi bhas zali. Hea prakritacho probhav telugu bhaxecher poddlo. I.So.Po. 200 vorsam, rajyokrteanchim danoptram, agoneaptram, korivo lekh ani gaha sot'tosisaroke gronth je prakritant boroile, tatunt monis, vostu ani thollam sombondit telugu namvam distat. Vixnnu kunddinache razouttint somskrit utranchea telugu bhouvchoni protyoyanchim rupam aileant. Renatti cholkalin korivo lekhant telugu utram distat. Heach vonxantlea dhononzoyan i.So. 575 to zo ‘ koloml'la korivo lekh ’ boroilo to telugu bhaxentolo poilo korivo lekh aslo. Nnovea xotmanant vijeaditeache razouttint (i.So. 848) ‘ od'donki korivo lekhant ’ poilem telugu pody mellttaH hea adlem sogllem borop godeantoch astalem. Telugu bhaxek hea kallkhonddant razaxroi mellil'lean tiche udrogotichea margant addmellim ailimnat. Poilo kallkhondd (i.So. 1001 te i.So. 1150):

Chaluky razacho xek hea kallkhonddant chol'lo; dekhun purai rajeant xant'tai ani thirai urli. Taka lagun telugu sahiteachi nettan udrogot zaupak lagli. Hea kallant prakritacho zago telugun ghetlo. Hi hea kallkhonddantoli mhotvachi ghoddnnuk. Dhormik zagritai hi telugu sahiteache survechea kallantoli urba asli. Somskrit ani telugucho ponddit non'noi hannem, venginorex rajraz norendrache suchounnevelean ‘ telugu mohabharot ’ rochlem oxem vidvanachem mot asa. He bhaxentlem poilem veakronn ‘ xobdochintamonni ’ non'noyanoch rochlem oxem kaim vidvan mantat. Hea kallantolem lekhon purai toren pourannik kothancher adaril'lem asa. Hea kallantlea mhotvache gronthrochonnukent, non'nechoddache ‘ kumarosombhou ’,bemulovadda bhimkovichem ‘ raghou panddvi-i ’, ‘ xotkontth - ramainn ’ ani ‘ nrisimh purann ’ hancho aspavo zata. Dusro kallkhondd (1151 te 1500):

Chalukio rajghoranneacho xevott ani kakti-i rajghoranneachi tin xotmanam cholil'li razoutt hem hea kallantolem khaxeleponn aslem. Kaktiyache razouttint andhrache raxttri-i osmitechi posounn bore toren zali ani tachem poddbimb sahiteacher poddlem. Marg podhdotichi bhas ani dexi poromporetole chhond ani olonkar hancho upeg korpi xoili hea kallant procharant asli. Mohakovi xrinath (1380-1450) ho modhyom' xoilikarancho protinidhi oxem mantat. Tachea vingddovingodd prokarchea rochnam bhitor morut'toratt choritr, xalivahon soptoxoti,xringaronoixodh, bhimkhondde, kaxikhondd, horvilasovithinattok, polnattivirochoritomu, xivratrimahatmyomu, pondditaradhyochorit heo sahity-kriti aspautat. Palkuriki somnath hea kovin ‘ bosoupurann ’ hem namnechem kauy rochlem. Rongnath kovin dvipod chhondant ramainn rochlem tor sumtixotokacho korto bod'dena hannem xotok-sahiteache poromporechi bunead ghali. Nel'lorocho mohakovi tikn'nan nirvochonot'tor ramainn ani non'noyan ordar soddil'li mohabharotantolim 4 te 18 porvam rochlim. Hea kovik hea kallkhonddacho protinidhi mantat. Gon budhdoreddin (1200-50)hachem, ‘ rongnathoramainn ’ hem ramkothevelem poilem svotontr telugu kauy asa. Tall'llopak on'nomachary (1423-1502) hea songitgone kovin 13,000 kirtonogitam rochun bhoktigitokaranchi porompora nirmili. Kovi marnan markonddeyopurann rochun purannoporomporechi bunead ghali.

Mhakovi tikkonacho xixy keton (1220-60) hannem telugunt probondh rochnechi (mohakauyorochona) survat keli. Tachi ‘ doxkumarochorita ’ hi hea probond prokarachi survat asli. Pil'lolomori pinvirobhdr (1425-90) hachea ‘ xokuntola porinnoibhu ’ ani ‘zoiminibharotomu ’ toxench ‘ nondiml'loi ’ ani ‘ ghonttasing ’ hea kovichea ‘ probodhochndrodoi ’ ani ‘ vorahopurannomu ’ hea rochnancher probond xoilicho probhavo poddil'lo dista. Tisro kallkhondd (1501 te 1700):

Vizoinogorocho somratt krixnnodeurai hachi razoutt (1506-1530) sahity, kola ani videa hanchi sogllea angamni bhorbhoratt zaupak karonn tharli.Hea kallak telugu sahiteachem ‘ bhangrayug ’ mhonnun pacharotat. Svota krixnnodeurayan ‘ amuktomalyoda ’ hea gronthachi rochnnuk keli. Tache rajsobhent ‘ oxttodiggoz ’ hea namvan gajil'le atth kovi asle. Otthra prokarochim vornnonam, dhirodat't naik, xringarachim vornnonam, purannantolim gajil'lim kothanokam hancho aspavo axil'lea agllea-vegllea salonkrit probondhokaveamni ho kallkhondd gajlo. Ped'donachem ‘ monuchoritr ’, ramraz bhuxnnachem ‘ vosuchoritr ’, tenali ramokrixnnachem ‘ panddurongomahatmyomu ’, xrinathachem ‘ xringar noixodh ’, krixnnodeurayachem ‘ amuktomalyoda ’ him teluguntolim vhodd ponch probondhokaveam (ponchmahakaveam) oxem mantat. 1565 to vizoinogor razouttichea osta uprant tonzaurchea moratthi razamni ani moduraichea rajghoranneamni telugu sahiteachi udrogot ghoddoupakhatir aplem fattboll dilem. Xohaji, vizoiraghou naik, chemkur venkttokovi ani rongajm'm' hancheo hea kallantleo rochna ul'lekhoni-i asat. Teagrazachea sahitean tomill bhaxik vattharant apli khaxeli suvat nirmil'li. Gain ani obhinoi hancho aspavo axil'lo. ‘ yokxogan ’ namvacho agllo nrityonattyoprokar hea kallant choltalo. Yokxoganak ‘ zokkulopattolu ’ mhonnttale.

Choutho kallkhondd (1701 te 1850):[बदल]

Hea kallantolem sahity favo to pamvddo zori mellounk paulem na tori tatunt veglleponn aslem. Kuchimonchi tim'mokovi (1701-56) hannem hea kallant xotok, donddok, probondhokauy ani promannobhut lokxonngronth boroile. Xudhd telugunt tannem ramainn rochlem. Konkontti paprazu hannem boroil'lem ‘ ut'tor ramainn ’ ‘ voidrbhiriti ’khatir namvajl'lem asa. Narainn kovichi ‘ bobbili itihas kotha ’ chouddppache kond ani regulopatti kurmachem sis chhondantolem xotok,kasul purxot'tomachem veazoktipurnn andhronaik xotok, chattukaveache rochnakar addidomu surkovi ani pinddiprollu sokxmonnokovi, bhoktigitacho rochnakar kxetroyea,he hea kallantole namneche sahityik asle. Arvil'lo kallkhondd (1851 te 1947):

Englix razvotticho xek hea kallant andhr prodexacher chol'lo ani tachem poddbimb telugu sahiteacher poddlem. Inglix kovinchea onukoronnak lagun bhaukovitecho udoi telugu sahiteant zalo. Kothatmok loghukauy, khonddkauy, atmonixtth kauy, soimacher adaril'lem kauy ni guddhkauy he sahity prokaroi hea kallant udeak aile. Tea kallauyleo bhouxik ani rajki cholloulli, toxench hunddo, balvivah, osprixyotai, xetkar ani kamgar lokanchi sukh-dukhkham hancho probhavo telugu kovinchea hea kallantlea kaveacher poddil'lo dista.

Arvil'lea kallantlea sorzonoxil kovimbhitor gurzadd venkott opparavo ani raiprolu subbaravo hancho vantto mhotvacho asa. Hea dogamyni bhavo kovita ho novo kauy prokar kelloilo. ‘vochnogey ’ va ‘ gondhgitam ’ ho kauyoprokar hatallpeam'modim munimannkyom' norsimhoravo, vixvonath, sotyonarainn ani addibi bapirazu hancho aspavo zata. Yoti ani nad hancher bhor axil'lim godyogitam xixttola umamohexvororavo (1898-1938), xrirongom' xrinivasoravo, xrirongom' narainnobabu (1906-62) si. Narainn redd'ddi (1930) ani arudr bhagoutul xonkroxastri (1922), xoixendr xorma, jvalamukhi, nikhilexvor hamnni rochlim.

Telugu sahiteantolem nattyolekhonachem porv 1875 vavilal vasudeuxastri hannem jyuliys sizhor nattkacho onnkar korun suru kelem. Dhormaurom' ramokrixnnachary, kolacholom' xrinivasoravo hamnni poilem svotontr telugu nattok boroilem. Andhr xeksopiyor panguntti lokxminorosimhoravo hannem tis nattkam boroilim. Vixrvonath sotyonarainn hannem unch pamvddeachea nattkanchi nirmonni keli. Achary atrey ani buchchibabu (xivraz venkttosubboravo) hamnni aplea nattkam vorvim monacho thavo sodpacho yotn kelo. Ekankika ho nattyoprokar 1910 to telugu sahiteant bhitor sorlo. Tol'laujzhol xivxonkoroxastri hannem telugu songitikechea mollar mhotvacho vaur kelo.

Telugu kadomboricher ostontecho probhavo poddla. 1873 to khoddoul'li ramchondruddu hachi ‘ dhormouti vilasomu ’ hi poili kadombori ujvaddak aili. Vixvonath soty narainnachi ‘ veyi poddugulu ’,un'nou lokxminarainnanchi ‘ malopl'li ’ heo hea kallantleo kaim ul'lekhoni-i oxeo kadombreo asat. Nori norsimh xastri hannem itihasik kadomborichea mollar, guddipatti venkttacholom' hannem somajik kadomborichea mollar tor chilkomurti, lokxmi norsimhom', munimannkyom' norsimhoravo hamnni vinodi kadomborichea mollar molachi bhor ghalea. Gajil'lea bongali kadomborichea onnkaramni andhrant borich namna zoddlea.

Telugu kotha sahiteant manachi suvat zoddpeam'modim xripad subrohnnyoxastri, vixvonath sotyonarainn cholom' ani chinta dikxitulu hancho aspavo zata. Nibond, sahityosomikxa ani sonxodhonopor sahiteant virexolingomochem namv gajta. Svatontrea uprantocho kallkhondd (1947 uprant):

Svatontrea uprantchea kallkhonddantleo itihasik ghoddnnuko ani porki razouttikhala chepun uril'lea somazache umalle, sukh-dukhkham hanchem poddbimb hea kallkhonddantlea sahiteacher poddlam. Hea kallant kotha, kovita, kadombori, nattkam ani her toranchem sahity, telugu sahiteant vhodd promannant ailam.

Kavio[बदल]

Hea kallkhonddant arvil'le vicharosoronnichi ‘ obhyudoi ’ kovita bhavo kovitechea zagear voir sorli. Xrirongom' xrinivasoravo hea kovitancho zonok aslo. Xixttolo umamohexvororavo ani rudr jeotikar xrirongom' narainnobabu hamnni hea kauy prokarank novem moddonn dilem. Muktoxoilintolem oprup kauy pott'ttabhichea ‘ fiddel ragal ddozon ’ hea jheleant dista.Xonkroxastri bhagoutul ‘ arudram ’, onixett'tti, samsundor rentol, bal gongadhor tilok (1919-66), kundurti, elchuri, obburi, vordorajexvororavo he hea vorgant moddpi namneche kovi zaun asat.Daxrothi ani si. Narainn redd'ddi he kovi somazantlea sogllea chaliritinchea ekcharak fattboll ditat. Daxrothichi kovita virrosatmok asa. Narainn redd'ddin kothatmok gey kaveam rochleant. Boibhimn'na bhuvnoghoxokar romnnoredd'ddi hamnni aplea kaveant lokgitachea madhyomacho adar ghetla. Vixvonath sotyonarainnache ‘ xri ramainn kolpourikxomu ’ tor modhunapuntol narainn xastriche ‘ andhropurannom' ’ hi hea kallantolim mhotvachim mohakaveam zaun asat. Vorouroravo gunntturi, xexendr xorma, jvalamukhi, nikhilexvor, vizoi-ramredd'ddi, vonmala, en. Gopi, vorour ravo ani cherabondda razu he kovi-i telugu kaveant namna zoddun asat.

Kotha[बदल]

Arvil'lea telugu kothechi porompora addivi bapirazu hea kovi-kothakara saun suru zata. Tancheo ‘ bhogiroloi ’, ‘ nargale ’, ‘ xoilbala ’, himaloirxmi ’ heo kotha gajleat.Telugu kothanchea novea porvachem xrey koddouttigontti kuttumboravo, tripuronemi gopichondr, buchchibabu, palgum'mi podmorazu hea chougank vota. 1960 chea andhr rajeache thapnnuke uprant nove podhdotin novem kitemytori sangchem ani novea jiun muleancho purskar korcho oxi prourit'ti sahiteant aili. Hi prourit'ti kothechea madhyomantlean apnnaupeam'modim rachkondda vixvonathoxastri mukhel asun bal gongadhor tilok, bolivadda kantaravo, kom'muri vennugopaloravo, ovsorom' ramokrixnnoravo, modhurantokom' kazaram', monzuxri, cholsani prosadoravo he her kothakar asat.Bailanche jinnentole prosn sukh-dukhkh he vixoi hatallopi lekhikam'modim vasiredd'ddi, sitadevi, binadevi, rongnaikm'ma, porimola somexvor heo mukhel asat. KadomboriH

Telugu kadomborin hea kallant vingddovingodd vixoi hatallil'le distat. Modhyomourgiyanchi jinn chitraupeam'modim bolivadda kantaravo, ar. Es. Sudrxonom', ronghi somrazu mukhel asat. Vyokti ani somaz hanchebhitl'lo songhrx sotyonarainnomurtichea ‘ songhom' chesin ’, ‘ monixi ’, ‘ kouslea ’, ‘ dipxikha ’ kadomborint dista. Poronki dokxinnamurticheo kadombreo vatauronn ani thollave bhaxechea khaxeleponnache nodren oprup asat. Es. Ar. Nondichi ‘ noimixarnny ’ horizonanche vaitt jinnechem probhaviponnan chitronn korta. Potukuchi samb xivravo hachi ‘udoi kirnnalu ’, ‘ yeddurozula majili ’, ‘ onvexonn ’ heo kadombreo kotthinn vellar bhaunaprodhan monxanchi zaupi ovstha chitraitat. Kachkondda vixvonath xastri haka tachea bhaxaxoili, tontr,kosob, bhaunaprodhanota, somajik bandhilokiveli khor nixttha hea gunnank lagun dusrea mhazhuza uprantocho vhodd kadomborikar mhunn pacharotat. Her namnechea lekhok lekhikam'modim gunntturi xexendr xorma, pi. Xridevi, vasiredd'ddi, sitadevi, porimola somexvor, rongnaikm'ma, vodd'dder chonddidas, novin, un'nou lokxminarainn, ravuri bharvdaz mukhel asat. Nattkam

Svatontrea uprant telugu nattkant upatt bodol ghoddun ailo. Somazant ghoddpi dor ek vixoi nattkantlean hatallil'lean girest lokamporos sokoilo vorgoch hea prokarakodden chodd akrxit zala. Svatontreauporantchea nattkancher ostontecho probhavo unno zait gela. Techpori bhas sopi ani suttsuttit zalea.

Ddi. Vhi. Norsorazu (nattkom'), ovsorola venkttonorosu (jeotirmoyi), prokhea xriramomurti (kalratri, fonni, monixito monixi), korrapatti gongadhorom' (gudd'ddilokom'), renttl gopalokrixnn (inspekttor zonrol), ovsorola suryoravo (ponjrom') he kaim ul'lekh korpasaroke nattkokar zaun asat. Ekankika boroupeam'modim razomn'nar, cholom', narl, mud'dukrixnn, bhomiddipatti kamexvororavo,goraxastri he fankivont asat. PurskarH sahity okademichem vorsaullichim inamam zoddpi sahityik fuddle toren asa.

1955: surouromu protap redd'ddi, 1956: bulusu vyonkttexourolu, 1957: chirontonanonda svami,1960: ponangi xriram' opravu, 1961: balantropu rojnikantoravo, 1962: vixvonath sotyonarainn, 1963: tti. Gopichond, 1964: gurrom' zaxuva, 1965: achary rayaprolu subbaravo,1969: tum'mal sitarama murti, 1970: deurokondda bal gongadhor tilok, 1971: tapi dhormaravo, 1972: xri. Xri., 1973: si. Narainn redd'ddi, 1974: daxrothi, 1975: boyi bhimn'na, 1977:kundurti onjneyulu, 1978: devulopl'li vhi. Krixnna xastri, 1979: pi. Narainnacharyulu, 1981: vhi. Ar. Narla, 1982: il'lindol sorsvotidevi, 1983: ravuri bharvdaz, 1984: aluri boiragi, 1985: palgum'mi podmorazu, 1986: ji. Vhi. Subrohmonnyom' 1987: arudra, 1988: rachoml'lu ramchondra redd'ddi, 1989: es. Vhi. Zogaravo.

1958, 1959, 1966, 1967, 1968, 1976 ani 1980 vorsa purskar divonk nat.

Telugu bhaxent poilo goneanpitth purskar 1970 vorsa vixvonath sotyonarainn hachea ‘ramainnoklpourikxomu ’ hea mohakaveak favo zalo zalear dusro goneanpitth purskar 1989 vorsa si. Narainn redd'ddi hachea ‘ vixmbhora ’ hea mohakaveak favo zalo. Mhotvachim thollam:

Hoidrabad lagsorolo gonvllokondda kil'lo, gunnttur jilheantolo ett'ttipotola dhobdhobo, monglogirintolim gopuram, chejhrlichem kopotexvorachem devull, xrikakulomochem andhr vixnnuchem devull,papikonddolulagim godaurin nirmil'li vhodd gholl ani ran, bhodracholomochem ramachem devull, tirurotichem venkttexrvor deusthan, xrixoilomochem mol'likarzun tholl, honmokonddachem xenkddeamni khambeachem devull ani xilpokam', konddapurochi boudhd lenni, chit'tapl'li lagsorolem ranoutti pranneanchem zongol, hoidrabad sikondorabad zodd xaram him hangachim mhotvachim poryottonothollam asat. Nagarzun, mochchhokundd, tugombhdra proklp, vixakhaptt'ttonnom', kakinadda, mochchholiptt'ttonnom' him bondram; vizoivadda, varongol, kornul nel'lor him xaram andhr prodexantolim mhotvachim thollam asat.

Polleiat[बदल]

Andhra_Pradesh

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