Asam

विकिपीडिया कडल्यान
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ह्या विषयावयर देवनागारींत बरयिल्लें पान वाच : आसाम


Montage of AssamClockwise from top left: academic complex of IIT Guwahati, Ahom Raja's Palace (Garhgaon), Kamakhya temple (Guwahati), Rang Ghar pavilions (Sivasagar), Kolia Bhomora bridge over Brahmaputra river (Tezpur), one horned rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) at Kaziranga National Park, and Sivadol (Sivasagar).
First Ahom king Sworgodeu Chao-lung Siu-ka-phaa (Sukaphaa).

Bhartache ixany dikek axil'le rajy. Okxanx ani rekhanx 2409’ ut'tor ani 890 420’ te 970te 12’ udent. Hea rajeache ostontek ostont bongal ani bangladex, vaivy ani ut'torek bhutan, ut'tor ani ixanyek orunnachol prodex, udentek monnipur, nagalondd ani orunnachol prodex, dokxinnek meghaloi ani mizhoram', noirityek tripura him rajeam yetat.

Bhumyvrnnon:[बदल]

asamchea tin soimik vibhagant brohmoputrechem degonn, surma degonn ani hea donuy bhagam'modleo dongrancheo volli he vatthar aspautat. Brohmoputrechem udent ostont degonn 80 te 160 kimi. Rund ani 800 kimi. Lamb asa. Hea degnnache ut'torek himaloyachea mullsantleo dongul'leo, dokxinnek meghaloyacheo garo, khasi zoitia ani udentek zaiteo nhomyo mellun toyar zal'leo brohmoputracho provah bhitor sorta. Surma ma borak nhoinchem degonn 200 kimi. Lamb ani 96 kimi. Rund asa. Ho vatthar sadaronnoponnan sopatt asa. Hea degnnantleo nhoincheo dego gallak lagun unch zaleat. Hea nhoinchea vattharantolim kheddim pausachea disamuporant tolleantole zumve koxe distat. Hea vattharant kaim zageamni mottvea dongul'leank lagunotoyar zal'le chikhlache vatthar asat. Voilea don nhomyancheadegonnamodim tis-ya soimik vibhagantleo dongrancheo volli udent-ostont patll'lleat.

Brohmoputrecho ani surmeche degeuyoli zomin pikall asun tatunt remvechem promann unnem asta. Nhomyedegeuyoli mati thoranche fator jhizun toyar zalea. Dongri vattharantoli mati zhaddanchea kuxil'lea panank lagun toyar zalea. Asamant brohmoputrebhair dibang, subnosiri, bhorelli, dhonsiri, bornodi, monas, pamti, sorlobhonga, sonkox, lohit, naa, buri, dihing, disang,dikho, zhanjhi, dokxinn dhonsiri, kopili, dignu, jiri, zoninga, sonai, ddhalexvori heo lhan-vhodd nhomyo vhamvtat. Ut'tor subnosiri-brohmoputra songmacher sibsagorolagim mazuli ho 1261 chovo. Kimi. Avantthacho zumvo nhoinchea patrant vosla.Asamant bhumykapanchem promann khub chodd asa. Fattlea sadde-tinxim vorsant hea vattharant sat motte bhumykamp zale. 1897 to ani 1950 to asamant zal'le bhumykamp, somvsarantlea mottea bhumykapam'modole zaun asat.

Hovaman:[बदल]

asam' rajeachem tapman, gimachea disamni legit 29.40se. Voir vochna. Asamant paus zun te sopttembor mhoineant poddtta. Vorsak sadaronnopoman 175 sem'mi. Te 305 sem'mi. Pausachi nond zata. Asamachea udent bhagant chodd paus poddttam. Pausachea promannak lagun hea rajeak olo dukoll ani humvaracho tras zata. Ximyalleachea disamni hangachea unch dongul'leancher borf poddtta. Ostont asamant gimachea disamni vhoddlim vadllam zatat.

Vonspot ani monzat:[बदल]

purai asamant vingodd vingodd prokarochi vonspot ani monzat dixtti poddtta. Vonspotim bhitor sal, sag, deudar, ok, holoing, bomsom', amari, ozhar, sisu,simul, vet, kollok, boru he prokar khas korun distat. Hot'ti, genddo, ranreddo, veglleoveglleo zatichi hornnam, kallo chito, molayi vamsvel, sambor, kosturimrig, randukor, dhovo makodd him asamant dispi mukhel zonauram asat.

Itihas:[बदल]

asam' rajeak purannokallant prag jeotixopur ani kamrup hea namvamni vollkhotale. Fuddem teravea xotmanant brohmodexantlean yeun brohmoputrechea degnnant yeun ravil'lea xanvonxiank thollave lok ‘ahom'’ mhonnttale, ahom' mhollear zachi ‘borobori korpak yena oso’ - ‘oprotim'’. Soglleant borem mhollear ‘osom'’ hea utrasaun ‘asam'’ hem namv poddlem oxem mantat.

Mohabharot ani ramainn hea puranngronthant asamacho ul'lekh aila. Tatunt asam' (prag jeotixopur) norkasuran vosyil'lem rajy oxem mhollam.

Tacheauporant tacho cholo bhogodt't hanne hea prodexacher rajy kelem. Teuporant madhou, jitari, axirmot hea tin vonxamni pornea asamacher rajy kelem, hem vonxaullivelean somzota.Kalika purann ani yogini tontr hea gronthant hea prodexacher zaitea osur ani danou razamni rajy kel'leacho ul'lekh aila. Roghuvonxant (4.83) kamrupadhipotin roghurajeak hot'tinchi bhett dil'leacho ul'lekh melltta. Asamacher ary somskritayecho probhavo boroch usram poddlo, oxem vivdananchem mot asa.

Asamacho chouthea xotmanamerenocho itihas ospoxtt asa. Chouthea xotmanachea modim vormon vonxacho mull purus ‘puxyourmon’ hanne kamarupant rajeachi thapnnuk keli, oso odmas horxacho somkalin aslo. Ek fautt tanne horxakodden koblat korun bongalantolem kornnosuvrnn rajy hataxil'lem. Fuddlim tin xotmanam xalstombh vonxiyamni kamrupacher rajy kelem.

Baravea xotmanachea modim bongalachy pal razancho manddlik tingyodevo hachea tabeant ho vatthar aslo. Hachem bondd moddpak gel'lo senapoti voidhdevo tea rajeacho raza zalo. Voidhdeva fattlean bongalachea sen razanche xek asamacher chol'lo. Teravea xotmanant lokhnautichea muslomani rajeamni hea vattharacher zaiteo ghureo ghal'leo punn tankam opesoch ailem. Teravea xotmanant govindodevo ani ixanyodevo hanni hea vattharacher xek choloilo. Teravea xotmanant ahom' zomatiche lok sukafachea fuddaroponnakhala lokhimopur sibsagor jilheache dokxinnek aile ani tanni thoinchea thollavea ranoutt zomatink jikhun rajeacho vistar kelo. Udent bongalatlea kamta rajeacher choudavea xotmanachea modim tabo zoddlo. 1538 to, ahom' raza suhungomung hinnem udentek sodia bhomvtonni axil'lo chutiacho vhoddlo vatthar aplea tabeant ghetlo. Hea kallant ahomamni naga lokanchea add zaiteo ghureo ghaleo. Sollavea xotmonat ahomamni nougongchea lagim axil'lem bollixtt kacharachem rajy jikhlem ani tankam moibang (ut'tor kachar) meren dhamvddaile. Kacharachi rajdhani dimapur jikhun udentekoddolo vattharai aplea rajeak zoddlo. Udent bongalchea muslomani razanchea ghureank tondd dit brohmoputrechea degnnantoi tamnni aplo xek choloilo. 1539 to zhuzant muslim' senapoti turbokak tanchea add zhujtona har khauchi poddli,tor sotravea xotmanant moglanchi kacharaveli ghuri fosli. Fuddem moglamni kuchbihar-kamrupacher tabo mellyil'lean sumar ek xotman ahomank moglamadd zhujchem poddlem. 1637 to koch rajghoranneantlea bolinarainn hanka ahom' raza protaposingan moglamadd axroi dilo. Hea karnnak lagun ahom'- mogol songhrx samko khor zalo. Zhuza uprantchea kallant mogol-ahom' rajeanchea mojgotim boddnodi hi xim' tharaili. 1658 to kuchbiharchea prann'narainnan moglamadd kel'lea bonddacho faido gheun ahom' raza zoidhvozosingan brohmoputrechea degnnacher tabo melloilo. Mir zumla hannem 1663 uprant hea vattharantlean dhamvddaun ghale. Tacho cholo rudrosing (1696-1714) hannem hea rajeacho anikoi vistar kelo.Tannem kachari lokankoddlean nougongocho dokxinn bhag ani ut'torentolem moibang tthanne ghetil'lean kacharamni apli rajdhani khagnopurak vheli. Khasi-zointia zomatikoi tannem haroile punn tancho vatthar aplea tabeant dhetlo na. Rudrosingan manddlik razancho pongodd nirmupacho yotnoi kelo.

Ostont asamant kamta namvachem-i ek rajy aslem. Choudavea xotmanache survek raza durlobhonarainnak lagun thoim vidvanank alaxiro mell'llo. Tannem voixnnouponthachea prosarakoi aplem fattboll dilem. Pondramvea xotmanant hea vattharant khennvonx voir sorlo. 1498 to bongalachea husoinoxohan hangacho raza nilamborak horoilo. Kaim vorsamuporant vixvosingan ostont asamantlea lhan lhan razank jikhun koch rajeachi thaponnuk keli. Hangachea kamakhea deullacho jinnadhdar kelo. Ahomakoddon boreponn dourun muslomanak pois kele. Tacho cholo nornarainn hannem hea rajeacho vistar kelo (1533-84). Hea kannank kola-sahity hea gozalink borem dis aile. Tannem kaim kall ahomancher legit aplo xek choloilo.‘okboronameant’ legit tachea girestokayechim vornnonam aileant. Nornarainnacho putnnoyo roghu hannem 1581 to jen'na bondd kelem, ten'na taka sonkox nhoinche poltoddochem kuchbihar rajy toddun mell'llem. Sotravea xotmanache survek bhitl'lea motbhedank lagun koch rajeacho kaim vatthar mogol samrajeant vilin zalo ani uril'lo vatthar ahomanchea hatakhal urlo.

Otthravea xotmanant survechea kallant ahomamni hindu dhorm' apnnailo. Xikxonn ani kolank tanni aplem fattboll dilem. Xakt add voixnnou him dhormik zhogddim heach kallant suru zalim. Rajeachea adaran xakt ponthiyamni ‘moamaria’ hea nouvoixnnouponthiyancho khor chholl kelo. Nouvoixnnouponthiyamni 1769 to hea chhollak lagun raza add bondd kelem ani raza lokxmisingak bondkhonnint uddoilo. Hem hondd rokddench moddun kaddlem. Punn 1786 to, moamariamni razache senek haroili, ten'na raza gourinathosing guvahotti hanga pollun gelo. Prodhan purnnanond bodda gohain hannem bonddkhoramadd zhuz chalu dourolem, punn takai nimannem opesoch ailem. Teachvellar koch raza krixnnonarainn hannem dorong tthanneacher ghuri ghalun ut'tor kamrup jikhlem. Hea vellar guvahotti xarank upraxil'lo dhoko polloun gourinathosingan brittixankodden adar maglo. Oxe toren brittixamni asamantlea rajkaronnant aplo provex kelo.

1792 to, lordd kornovolisan, keptton velxochea mukheloponnakhal ek pongodd asamant dhaddlo. Rajeant purai soustokai yetkoch keptton vels porto gelo. To gelea uprant rajeant porti oxantotai majli. 1810 to chondrokant razan asamachi sot'ta aplea hatant ghetli;punn guvahottichea rajyopalakoddole sombond ibaddil'lean tannem aplem rajy thir korpakhatir brohmodexacho palou ghetlo. Voilea karnnank lagun asam' rajy kaim kall brohmodexachea hatant urlem. I.So. 1894 to brohmodex ani brittix hanche modim zhuz zalem. 1826 to donuy pongddam'modim koblat zali ani teurovim brohmodexan asam' prant istt inddia kompnik dilo.Oxetoren asamacher brittixancho xek cholpak laglo. Dusre votten bhitl'lea motbhedant lagun piddil'lea ahomamsaun faido gheupachi khaspurchea kacharamni ani monnipurchea razamni yotn kelo. Tekhatir ahomamni brittixankodden 1817 vorsa magil'lo adar 1824 to tanka mell'llo.

Brittixamni te uprant monnipuraadd kacharak palou divn ho vatthar aplea hatant ghetlo toxench tularam' senapotikodden axil'lo kachar; ahom' raza purondorosing kodden axil'lo sibsagor ami lokhimopurocho kaim vatthar;bodd senapotikodden axil'lo dokxinn lokhimopur sadia khoba; gohain kodden axil'lo sadia he vatthar istt inddia kompnit 1842 meren aplea tabeant ghetle. 1874 meren asamacho karbhar kolokt'teasaun choltalo. 1874 vorsa asam' mukhel ayuktacho prant zalo. Hea vellar xilang hi hea rajeachi rajdhani zali. Hea prantachea adhikarant aichim nagalondd, meghaloi, orunnachol prodex him rajeam aspaul'lim.Dongri prodexantlea zomatik svait'tota mell'lli. 1905 te 1911 kallant asamocho vatthar, fallnni zal'lea bongalchea udent bhagak zoddil'lo ani hea vattharacho karbhar naib rajyopal polletalo. Vongbhong rod'd zatkoch asam' porot mukhel ayuktacho prant zalo. 1919 vorsachea kaideavorovim asam' ‘rajyopalacho prant’ zalo.

Asamak vigodd vingodd karnnank lagun aplo vatthar, vhodd promannant vogddaucho poddla. 1947 zal'le fallnnent asamacho silhett jilho udent pakistanant tor deunagori prodex bhutanant gelo. 15 ekttobor 1948 disa tripura ani monnipur him somsthanam aplem vegllem ostitv rakhun udent bhartant vilin zalim. 1948 to nefa prant (aicho orunnachol prodex)asama saun vegllo zalo. 1950 tolea somvidhana vorvim ‘o’ vorgantolem rajy zalem. 1 ddisembor 1957 disa nagalondd sama saun veglle zalem. 1 ddisembor 1963 disa nagalonddak rajeacho pamvddo mell'llo. 2 epril 1970 h. Disa ‘meghaloi’ asam' rajeantlean veglle kaddlem. 21 zanevari 1972 disa meghaloyak rajeacho dorzo mell'llo. 1972 mizhoram' asama saun vegllem kaddun songhprodex kelo. Zanevari 87 to mizhoram' tor 20 februvari 1987 disa orunnachol prodexak rajeacho dorzo mell'llo.

Rajyoveustha[बदल]

asam' hem bharti-i songhrajeanchem ek ghottok rajy asun raxttropotin nemil'lea rajyopalachea som'mtin montrimonddoll rajy karbhar choloita. Montrimonddoll vidhanosobhek zapsalodar asta. Vidhanosobhent 114 vangddi astat tor loksobhent ani rajyosobhent asamachem protinidhitv onukroman 14 ani 7 vangddi kortat. Bholaiki, xikxonn, xetki,zongol, ud'degodhonde, sohkar, mohsul, somazokleann, magaxil'lea vorgiyanchem punrvoson, purounn, utpadon kor, viz, roste, bandhkam', kamgar, gottvikas yeuzonni ani her khateacho karbhar montri ani kormochari sorkari yontronnechea palvan hatallottat. Jilho ani ponchait somiteo graminn vattharantoli bholaiki, mullavem xikxonn, graminn roste, thollavi udka purounn, lhan ud'deg dhonde, xetoudd, zonauram posop, sohkar, ,sorvanginn udrogot ani her vixoi hatallottat. Poilim asam', nagalondd ani meghaloya hea tin rajeancho ek rajyopal astalo. Sodea hea rajeak svotontr rajyopal melltta. Asam' rajy barpetta, kachar, dorong,dubri, dibrugodd, golpara, zorhatt, kamrup, karbi anglang, korimogonz, kokrazar, lokhimopur, nougang, ut'tor kochar, nolbari, pragjeotixopur, sibsagor, sonitopur hea otthra jilheamni sod'dea vanttil'lem asa.

Orthik sthiti[बदल]

asamantoli zominodari pod'dhot bond korun xasnan thoinchi bhum-i roitovadi pod'dhotin lokank vanttun dilea. Rajeantlea xromik lokam'modole 70% lok xetki-ud'degant asat. Pikall vattharam modlo 70% vatthar pikaulli khatir vaprotat. Bhat hem hea rajeachem mukhel pik asun bottatt, dall, moko, samsvam ani her xet-dhaneam hanga piktat. Cheak lagun ho vatthar sompn'n asun, vott'tt vorsuki utpadonantolo 81% chea bhair nireat zata. Te bhair tag, kapus, telbio, ums, mosombi, him pikaim asamantole xetkar pikoitat. Bhartantole soglleant vhodd konddeachem rakhivo von asamant asun bhartachea vott'tt konddeanchea utpadonantolem 42% utpadon asamant zata.

Asamant kollso, chunkhoddi, pettroliyom', silimenaitt, bhott'ttentoli mati, ddolomaitt, koronddom' ani soimik vayu hea khonizanchem utpadon zata. Bhartachea vott'tt utpadonantolo 50% pettrolyom', soimik vayu ani oxud'dh tel asamant melltta. Nohor kottiya ani moran bhomvtonni sumar 4.3 kotti tton tel ani 57 kotti ghonmittor zollpi vayu hanche santthe asat. Bhott'tteam khatir ani vitto ghoddoupa khatir lagpi chiknnomati aऩi xedd hanchem-i kaim promannant utpadon hea rjeant zata.

Asamant poryottonachem mhotv vaddik saglam. Bharot sorkaran asamantlea guvahaddotti- kajhirong-sibsagor aऩi guvahotti-monas hea don vattharank poryotton vibhag mhunn manyotai dilea. Asam' sorkar guvahotti-boirabokundda-orang-bhaluking-tejpur ani guvahotti ddifuhafolog-silghor hea don vattharank ‘poryotton vibhag’ mhunn udrogotik haddunk vavurotat.Voile don vibhag orunnachol prodex, monnipur, mizhoram' hea rajeank zoddil'lean, ixany bhagant poryotton veusayak bore dis yetle oxem zannkar mantat. Asamant digboi aऩi ninmoti hanga tel xud'dhikoronnacho karkhano asa. Narongi hanga 12.5 megavett tankitem ek ouxnnik viz nirmonni kendr asa. Dhubri hanga ek vhodd foskam kaddeancho karkhano asa.Namrup hanga sorkari sarea karkhano asa. Xet-pikaullicher adaril'le zaite xekti-karkhane hea rajeant voir sorleant, tatunt chea karkhaneancho poilo kromank asun her karkhane sakhor, tag, rexim', kagod, plaivudd, bhat ani telache asat. Te bhair rajyobhor axil'lea 750 chea molleamni lakhamni kamgar kam' kortat. Asamant panch jilha ud'degik kendranchi thapnnuk zait saun ud'degikoronnak nett aila.

Yeradari ani soncharonnH rajeant udka margak khaxelem mhotv asun veparachi hadd-vhor korpa khatir nhomyancho vapor zata. Niamoti, tejpur, guvahotti, goalopadda, dhubri, korimogonz, silvor ani her zageam mojgotim udka margan yeredari cholta.

Guvamhotti lagim maligamv hanga ixany xim' relvechem mukhealoi asa. Hea relve-vibagant 3,583 kimi. Relve roste asat (1984). Asamantlea vott'tt rosteantole 80% roste sopatt vattharantlean votat tor uril'le dongrall vattharantlean votat. 1981-82 meren asamant 59,579 kimi. Lambayeche roste bandil'le.Asam' soit udent bharot, bhartachea konxak poddil'lean asamant viman yeradarik khas mhotv ailam. Guvahatti saun tejhpur, zorhatt, dibrugoddh, lokhimopur, silchor, dhubri ani her vattharant neman udd'ddannam zata. Guvahotti ho bhartantlea mhotvachea vimanotollam modlo ek zaun asa. Asam' rajeantlea bhair sorpi disalleam modim ‘doinik asom'’ (asami),‘doinik zonmobhumi’ (asami), ‘nyuz sttar’ asami, ‘do asam' ttribyun’ (inglix), ‘asam' eksopres’ (inglix, hancho aspavo zata.

Lok ani somajikoronn:[बदल]

son 1971 che zongonnonepromann asamachi leksonkhea 1,46,25,125 asa. 1981 to, asamant zongonnona zaunk na. Tea vorsachea odmasa promann ho ankddo 1,98,96,843 itlo asunt zai. Dor chovo. Kimi. 254 lok poddttat. 1000 dadleank 901 bailo itlem promann asa. 1971 to gamvgirea vattharantoli vosti 91.6% asli. Zonon promann hozarak 34 itlem asle. Rajeant 73% hindu dhormi-i, 24.5% islam' dhormi-i, 2.6 % kiristamv dhormi-i asat. Te bhair xikhr, boud'dh, zoin he dhorm' hanga thoddea promannant asat.

Asamant vingodd vingodd torechea zati zomati vingodd vingodd kall khonddant yeun rauleo. Hatunt esttro-exiattik, nigroidd, drovidd, alpainos, inddo-mongoloidd, tibetti-bormiz, ary hancho aspavo zata. Asamant jeo zaiteo zomati distat, tatuntleo mikir, borman borokachari, lalung, radha, miri, deuri ani mech heo moidani sopatt moidanant rautat. ‘chea’ molleant kam' korpi kamgar bongal, bangla dexantlean ayil'le musloman xetkamoti kachar ani goalopadda jilhant yeun rauleat.

Asamchea sopatt vattharant raupi gamvigore lok kuddacheo vonntti ani tonnachim pakhim axil'lea ghorant rautat. Purai asamant, gamvgirea vattharantole lok favil'lea vellant hat magacho veusai kortat. Hem kam' chodd korun bailo kortat. Te bhair rexim' toyar korop, sutkotai, suti-rexmi kapodd vinnkam' khas korun ghorguti gorzo bhagoupa khatir kortat.

Asami dadle dhotor ani xal vaprotat. Bailo saddi ani xal vaprotat. Sod'dea arvil'lea yugantlea vingodd vingodd bhesanchoi tancher probhavo poddla. Asami lokanchem jeunn sadem asta. Sadaronn ponnan bhat, dall, bhajeo, nustem heo vostu tanchea jeunnant aspautat.

Asamant nouratrant durgapujecho utsou vhodd thattamattan monoitat. Durgapuje uprant yeupi kalipujecho utsou, asami lok khas korun ‘chea’ molleantole kamgar vhodd umedin monoitat. Jyextth ani axaddh mhoineant obuvanchi porob hanga monoitat. Asamant ‘bihu’ namvache don bhouxik utsou vhodda urben monoitat. Hatuntolo ‘maghbihu’ ho sonn asami lokanchea novea vorsachi survat asta. Tor ‘bohag bihu’ ho sonn vosont ritunt monoitat. Asamachea gamvgirea vadharant ‘bisouri puza’ zata. Brohma, vixnnu, mohex, indr ani her oxa sat devanchea hailank horaun hi ruza kortat. Asaman kolechea mollaroi aplo khasa probhavo ghala. Kalika purannant purvil'lea asamant, songitamlem kontthsongit ani vad'dosongit he don prokar ostitvant axil'leache ul'lekh yeta. Choudavea ani pondravea xotmanant, xonkrodevan, aplea bhokti somprodaya khatir vhodd promannant svor-rochna korun asami songtant kranti ghoddoili. Lok natty prokarant ‘onkia natt’ (sodea ‘bhauna’ mhonnttat), ‘ozapali’ he aizuy ruddh asat. Asamant mhotvachea sonna-porbamni nrity songita sarkeo karyoulli korpachi chal asa. ’laihoroba nrityonattika’, ‘monnipuri nrity’, ‘deudhoni nrity’, gopi krixnnachi ras kridda dakhoupi ‘khulia nrity’, ‘ddhulia nrity’, ‘kollsutri bauleanchea’ adaran purai ramainnachi kotha samrpi ‘putlanrity’, surma nhoinchea degnnant raupi gamvgireanchem ‘noukanrity’, vony zomatincho ‘bodda’ ho sanghik nrity prokar, ‘bihu’ ho thollavo nrity prokar oxem vingodd vingodd nrity prokar asamant distat.

Vastukolechea mollaroi asam' fuddaril'lo asa. Dorong jilheantlea dah porvotiya vattharantolem fatrachem devull, kamakhea modlo purvil'lo ‘umachol xilalekh’, ‘ mohavoidab,vixvonath, xiv, kamakhea , nougroh, umanond hanchim deullam asami vastukolechem voibhou dakhoitat. Xivadol, devidol, vixnnudol, ranghor ani karenoghor hangachi deullam vastukoleche nodrenoi oprup asat. Ghumttachea akarachem stup, pegodda sarkim pakhim, deullanche ghudd, choity govakxam, khambe sarkea prokaramni asamachi vastukola sompn'n zalea. Bud'dh, brohma, lokxmi, sorsvoti, vasudevo, ram', lokxmonn aऩi her devo devadikancheo murti asamant khub kodden distat.

Asamant chitrokolechi-i porompora asa. Choudavea-pondravea xotmanant, xonkrodevachea nattkanchea podd'ddeakhatir devo-deukanchim chitram rongoitale. ‘gitgovindom'’, ‘bhagoutopurann’ hea gronthancheo zaitea zannamni jeo hostolikhit proti toyar keleo, tancher chitram kaddpak chitrokaram'modim sort lagtali.

Xikxonn[बदल]

asam' sakxorotechea mollar magaxil'lo asa. 1971 to sakxorotechem promann 28.8% aslem. Dadleam bhitor hem promann 36.7% tor bailam bhitor 18.91 % aslem. Epril 1978 to asam' sorkaran dhave merenochem xikxonn fukott kelem. 1978-79 meren asamant 24,615 mullaveo xalla asleo. Te bair 137 koleji, 3 voijki mohavidealoyam, 3 obhiantriki mohavidealoyam, 1 xetki vixvovideapitth (zorhatt), dibrugoddh vixvovideapitth (dibru) guvahotti vixvovideapitt (guvahotti) him vixvovideapittham samballottat.

Bhaxa ani sahity[बदल]

‘asami’ hi protivo sompn'n bhas asun, ghottneche xotmanant somskritintlean udrogotichim sopnnam choddli. Punn magdhi opbhronx hich asami bhaxechi mull bunead zaun asa. Griyrson hachea motan prachyoprakrit bhaxek lagim axil'li mukhel boli ‘magdhi prakrit’ zaun asa. Magdhi bhaxechem udentek ‘prachy opbhronx’ uloitale. Te bhaxecho dokxinn ni agney vattharant prosar zaun arvil'lea bongali bhaxechi ti bunead tharli. Prachy opbhronx bhaxecho dokxinne kodden techpori gongeche ut'tor degek prosar zalo. Hoch prosar fuddem asamant paulo. Hangachi arvil'li asami bhaxa tichem protinidhitv korta. Uddia, arvil'li bongali bhas ani asami hea magdhi opbhronxa saun ghoddil'lea bhasanchem tanchy mull opbhronx bhaxe kodden natem asa. (lingvisttik sorvhe ef inddia, khondd-1, bhag poilo, pan 125-1(ri6). Ddo. Sunitikumar chottrjin prachy magdhi opbhronx boliche char gott manleat. Hea charam modlea tigancho sombond ostont, modhy ani udent bongal ani orisa hanga prochlit axil'lea bolim kodden lagta. Chouthea gottacho sombond ut'tor bongalant aspaul'lea asamchea bhaga kodden yeta.Ddo. Ballikant kaktin, ‘prachy magdi opbhronx’ osem mhonnpak yeupa sarke kaim boli bhaxache gott bongali poilim ani asami poilinchea kallkhonddat ostitovant axil'leachem sid'dh kelam.Kallantoran bolbhaxa gottanchim lokxonnam tharun svotontr asami razochhtrasok ani purai svoimpurnn jinnek lagun ek svotontr bhas mhunn asami bhas mukhar aili. Voir axil'lea ul'lekha promainn asami bhaxechi utpot'tikall satvea xotmanant pauta.

Osmia sahiteache, sadaronnoponnan so kallkhondd kum yetaH-. 1. Voixnnou poilincho kallkhondd (1250 te 1500) 2. Voixnnou kallkhondd (1501 te 1650) 3. Ahom' va god'd burunji kallkhondd (1651 te 1826) 4. Arvil'lo kallkhondd (1827 te 1920) 5. Raxttri-i purut'thaponacho kallkhondd (1921 te 1947) ani 6. Svatontrea uprantocho kallkhondd (1947 ani uprant).

Voixnnou poilincho kallkhondd (1250 te 1500):[बदल]

Asami bhaxent sahity rochnnukecho agombh teravea xotmanant zalo. Hea kallantolem sahity kaveank rochlem. Pourannik kotha ho tacho mull gabho aslo. Horivr vipratti loukuxor zhuz ani bubrovahonor zhuz him don dirgh akheanopor kaveam, hemsorsvotin boroil'lim ‘prolhad choritr somvad’ ani ‘horgourisomvad’ him kaveam,rudrokondilan kel'lo mohabharotachea dronnoprvacho onnkar, madhou kondlin rosall bhaxent boroil'lem ramainn, hi asami sahiteant poddil'li molachi bhor asli. Deudeutanchi vhoddvik gaupi ‘panchali’ namvacho kauy prokar hea kallkhonddat apli khaxeli suvat nirmann korun aslo. ‘panchali’ kaveant survek kothnatmok bhag. Modim bhaugitatmok bhag ani nimnnem portun kothnatmok bhag aspautalo. Hea kauy prokarant durgaur hannem ‘gitiramainn’ ani ‘beula akhean’, pitambor kovichem ‘uxa porinnoi’ ani ‘nolopakhean’ ani monkor hachem ‘podmopurann’ him kaveam mukhel asat. Hea kaveant zaitim bhaugitam ayil'lim asun ragdari songitachea chalir tim gaitat.

Voixnnou kallkhondd (1501 te 1650):[बदल]

voixnnou ponthachea punrujjiunachea hea kallant asami sahiteachi bhorbhoratt zali. Hea kallant nirmann zal'lea sahiteache fuddlea bhagant korum yetat. KauyH 1. Arx mohakaveam ani purannanche onnkar 2. Mohakauy ani purannanche onnkar 3. Bhoktiprerit oprupancheo kotha 4. Nattkam 5. Udat't bhavo axil'lim ani ragdarit bosoil'lim gitam 6. Sontchoritromala.

Gadday[बदल]

1. Purannanche gody onnkar ani apros 2. Gody choritram. Voixnnou ponthacho prosar korop ani taka lokancho asaxiro melloun divp hea hetan voixnnou sont ani kovimni vhodda promannant asami bhaxent sahity rochna keli. Mhan sontkovi xonkrodevan (1449-1569) voixnnou ponthachea prosara vangddach osmia git-songitat namna ani lokaxroi melloun dilo. Tannem bhagout purannancho sopea bhaxent onnkar kelo. Tacho onuyayi madhoudevo hannem (1489-1596) ‘zonmorohsy’ ani ‘rajsuy yogone’ him kaveam ani ‘bhokti-rotnauli’cho chhondobd'dh onnkar kelo.Bharti-i totvogoneanopor gronthant ojromvor tharpi bhoktigit gronth ‘namghoxa’ va ‘hazari ghoxa’ hi tachich rochnnuk zaun asa. Onont kondlin ‘mohiraunn-bodh’, ‘hori-hor yud'dh’, ‘vritrasur-vodh’,‘bhorot-savitri’, ‘jivo-stuti ’ ani ‘kumar horonn’ he gronth rochle. Ramsorsvotin mohabharotacho asami bhaxentonnokar kelo. Bhott'tt devan (1558-1638) ‘kotha git’ namvachi gody bhogoutogita rochli. Te bhair tannem kotha bhagoutoi rochlem. Damodor devo (1488-1598) hannem mhotvachim choritram tor puruxot'tom' tthakur hannem veakronnavixim kary korun asami sahiteant molachim bhor ghalea.

Ahom' va godyoburunji kallkhondd (1651 te 1826):[बदल]

osmia sahiteacho tisro kallkhondd asamantlea ahom' razanchea udea saun suru zata. Ahom' razamni rajki mollaveleo ghoddnnuko fakivont boroupea koddlean, sope ani sade bhaxent boroun ghetleo. Itihasachi boskam axil'leo zaiteo ‘bokhri’ hea kall khonddant boroileo. Hea bokhrink ‘burunji’ mhonnttat. Horkant burua hannem sompadit kelea ‘osmi burunji’ ani ‘deughani asam' buronji’ hea pustokant zaitea burunjichem sonklon kel'le asa. Te bhair xrinath duara sompadit tungkhungia burunji, kochari burunji, asam' burunji, ddo. Es. Ke. Bhuyn hannem sompadit kel'lem ‘padxoha burunji’ hem burunjivixinchem mhotvachem sahity zaun asa.

Ahom' raje ani sordaramni ‘godyoburunji’koch nhoi tor bhousak upegi podd sarkem sahity boroupak aplem fattboll dilem. Taka lagun jeotixy, voijki, songit nrity, nitixastr ani her vixeancher gody ani gody rupant gronth rochna zali. Hatunt hot'ti sombondan ‘hostividearnnou’, ghoddeanchea roganchi chikitsa korpi ‘ghoddanidan’ nrity ani hostomudrasombondit ‘xrihstomuktauli’, nitixastracher ‘nitilotankur’, jeotixyoxastracher ‘bhasvoti’ ani her gronth hatunt aspautat.

Ahom' kallant ramainn-mohabhorotache onnkar, brohmovoivrtopurann, nardiyopurann, dhormopurann hea gronthanche purai tokrir podmopurann, markonddeyopurann, hirvonx, vixnnupurann, kolkipurann ani skondpurann hea gronthanchea kaim bhaganche hodeant onnkar zale. Zoidevachem ‘gitgovind’, gosvami tulsidasanchea ramchorit mansantolem ‘oyodheakandd’, modhyoyugantlea hindi bhaxentole sufi-ponthi-i kauyogronth ‘mrigauti ani chondrauti’ heach kallant asami bhaxent ailem.

Kovixekhor videachondr bhott'ttachary, koviraz chokrourti ani ram' narainn chokrourti ho hea kallkhonddantole namneche kovi zaun asat.

Voixnnou ponthakodden sombondit dhormik sahity boroupacho vaur ahom' razachea kallant chaluch urla, punn otthravea xotmanant he torechea sahiteak demvti kolla lagli.

Arvil'lo kallkhondd (1827 te1920):[बदल]

1826 to, brittixamni asam' aplea xekatolla ghetkoch brittixank xasnoveustha ani nyaidan veustha chalik laupak inglix bhas zanna zal'lea karkunanchi goroz poddli. Inglix bhas zanna zal'le lok asamant naxil'lean bongalantlean vhodd promannant lok haddle. Bongali lokamni ‘asami’ hi veglli bhas nasun bongalichich ti boli asa oso goirsomoz patllailo. Oxe toren sumar challis vorsam asamacher bongali bhaxecho xek chol'lo. Hea kallant asami bhaxa-sahiteant vhoddlixi bhor poddli na.

Mixonreamni asami bhas xikun tatunt gronth rochnnukoi keli. 1813 to purai baibol asamint aslem. Zon bonyonochem ‘pilgrims progres’ ani tachi her pustokam sope asami bhaxent onnkarit zalim. 1846 to ‘orunnedoi’ namvachem sahityik mhoinallem ujvaddak yeupak laglem. Mixonreanchea palvan asami bhaxek manachi suvat melloun divonk je vavurleat.

Tatunt anongoram' ddhekial (vichar prourtok borpaull), fukon hemchondr borua (xastri-i totvancher adaril'lea osmia xobdokoxacho lekhok), gunnabhiram' borua (bhomvddeurnnon ani somajik nattkam) hancho aspavo zata. 1873t, osamia bhas bongali bhaxecho xek sompoun aplea bhoumanachea podar pauli.

Lokxminath bejhborua (lolit nibond), chondrokumar agrovala ani hemchondr gosvami (kauy), rojnikant bardoloi (itihasik kadombori) toxench podmonath gohain-borua, vennudhor rajkhova, komlakant bhott'ttachary hamnni hea kallant asami sahiteant molachi bhor ghali.

Visavea xotmanache survek sahityikanchi ji ek pillgi mukhar aili, tatunt hitexvor borborua, roghunath choudhri, zotindronath duara ani ombikagiri raichoudhori hamnni kovitechea mollar tor chondrodhor borua, durgexvor sorma, mitrodevo mohont hamnni nattkachea mollar asami sahiteant bhor ghali.

1809 to ‘zonaki’ namvachem mhoinallem suru zalem. Tatuntlean asami sahiteant svochchhondotavadi vicharpronnali mull dhorpak lagli. Tea mhoinalleantlean tea kallantole sahityik borench gajle.

Raxttri-i punrut'thanacho kallkhondd (1921 te 1947):[बदल]

hea kallantlea sahityikamni khas korun soim', mog ani sobitokaye vangddach dexobhkti, raxttrachi zagritai ani somazachi sorvanginn udrogot hea vixeak hat ghalo. Kaveachea mollar binondochondr borua, ddimbexvor neog, otulochondr hozharika, anondochondr borua, gonnexochondr gogoi aऩi deukant borua hancho mukhel vantto asa. Otulochondr hozharika, doibchondr talukodar, nokulochondr bhuyn, komlanond bhott'ttachary ani jeotiprosad agrovala hamnni nattyolekhonachea mollar mhotvacho vaur kelo. Jeotiprosad agrovalachi ‘xonit-kuvari’, ‘karegor ligiri’ ani ‘rupalim'’ him nattkam koleche nodren oprup mantat. Asami kadomborint hea kallant molachi bhor ghalpeam modim rojnikant bardoloi,doibchondr talukodar, donddinath kolita hancho aspavo zata. Hea kadomborikaramni voilea pamvddeachi sahity-nirmonni keli.

Svatontrea uprantocho kallkhondd (1947 uprant):[बदल]

svatontrea uprantchea kallant asami sahiteachi nettan udrogot zali. Novea vicharinche sorzonoxil kovi, nattkokar ani kadomborikar sahiteant novo proyog korpache itsen mukhar aile. Novea prokarachea protikatmok kaveancho proyog korpeam'modim hemkant borua hachi suvat voir asa. Noukant borua, (1926), hori borkakoti (1927), soiyd obdul molik, homen borgohain, mohendr bora, dinex gosvami, nilmonni fukon (dhaktto), kexou mohont, birexvor borua, mohim' bora he hea kallkhonddatole namneche kovi zaun asat. Hea kallant noukaveache udrogotik hatbhar laupacho vaur ‘ramdheni’ (1951) hea mhoinallean kela.

Dexobhktin bhoril'lea krantikarok nattkam boroupeam'modim chondrokant fukon, surendronath saikia, sordokant bardoloi ani provinn fukon hea nattkokarancho aspavo zata. Komlanond bhott'ttachary ani jeotiprosad agrovala hamnni svopnoronzonatmok nattkam boroilim.

Kotha-kadomborichea mollar svopnoronzonachi suvat vastouten ghetlea. Te vorvim upekxit ghottkam kodden somazachem lokx gelem ani tache bhouxik nodrentlean mulyomaponomoi zaupak laglem.Kadomborichea mollar bina boruachi ‘jiunor batt'tocha’ (1945), hitex ddekachi ‘ajir manuh’ (1952), adyonath sormachi ‘jiunor tiniodhyai’, chondrokant gogai hachi ‘sonnar nangol’,govind mohont hachi ‘krixokor nati’ heo kadombreo mhotvacheo asat. Birendrokumar bhott'ttachary, profulodt't gosvami, radhikamohon gosvami hamnni monovixlexonnatmok kadombreo boroileo.

Asami loghukothecher ostontechea kotha sahiteacho probhavo poddla. Tika voilea pamvddeaveli kolatmokota melloun divpacho man lokxmikant bejhborua haka vota. Tache ‘sadhukothar kuki’,‘zonabiri’ ani ‘ surbhi’ he tin loghukotha jhele ujvaddak aileat. Xordochondr gosvami, nogendr narainn ani troilokyonath gosvami hamnni bhouxik jinnechem chitronn aplea kothantlean kela.

Bharti-i sahiteacho mandondd axil'lo goneanpitth purskar 1979 vorsa birendrokumar bhott'ttachareachea ‘mrityunzoi’ pustokak mell'llo, bharti-i sahity okademiche purskar zoddpi hea bhaxentole sahityik ani tancheo sahity kriti fuddle toren asat.

1955: zotindronath guara, 1960: vennudhor sorma, 1961: birendrokumar bhott'ttachary- ‘yaruigom'’(konknni onnkar : ailem amchem rajy – monohororai sordesai 1990), 1964 : birchi kumar borua, 1966: ombikagiri roichoudhori, 1967: troilokyonath gosvami,1968: nolinubala devi, 1969: otul chondr hozarika, 1970: lokxminath fukon, 1972: soiyod obdul molik, 1974: sourobh kumar chholina, 1975: noukant borua, 1976: bhabhendronath saikia, 1977: anondochondr borua, 1978: homen borgohon, 1979: bhabhen borua, 1980: zogex das, 1981: nilmonni fukon‍‌ (dhaktto), 1982: indira gosvami,(mam'moi roisom' gosvami), 1983:nirmolprobhu bardolai, 1984: devendronath achary, 1985: krixnnokant hod'diki, 1986: tirthonath sorma, 1987: horikrixnn ddeka, 1988: lokxminondon bora, 1989: hiren gohen.

Son 1956,1957,1958,1959,1963,1965,1971,1973 vorsa, he bhaxent konnakuch ropskar mellunk na.

Mhotvachim thollam:[बदल]

Maligamv hanga axil'lem bharti-i relvechea ut'tor-purv vibhagachem kendr, asamachem soglleant vhodd xar gumahotti, kajhironga ani manos obhearnneam, pornea ahom' razouttichi rajdhani zorhatt,'chea'chem nogor dihbrugoddh, tagachi bazaropetth silvor him asamantolim mhotvachim thollam asat.

Polleiat[बदल]

Assam

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