Udok

विकिपीडिया कडल्यान
हुपून वचात: दिशा-नियंत्रण, सोद
ह्या विषयावयर देवनागारींत बरयिल्लें पान वाच : उदक

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Water in three states: liquid, solid (ice), and gas (invisible water vapor in the air). Clouds are accumulations of water droplets, condensed from vapor-saturated air.
Video demonstrating states of water present in domestic life.


Model of hydrogen bonds (1) between molecules of water.
Impact from a water drop causes an upward "rebound" jet surrounded by circular capillary waves.
Dew drops adhering to a spider web.
Capillary action of water compared to mercury.

Soglleanchea vollkhicho ek sadaronn drou podarth. Poilinchea kallant udok hem ek muldrouy asa, oso somoz axil'lo. Punn 1760 to honri keuhenddix hannem udok hem haiddrozon ani eksizon hanchi 2:1 hea ghonfollachea promannant bhorsonn axil'lem somyug asa oxem sid'dh kelem. 1800 to sor homfri ddeuhi hannem udok hem eksizonoche 8 bhag ani haiddrozonocho 1 bhag oxa promannant toyar zal'lem somyug asa, oxem dakhoun dilem. 1867 to, udkak H2O hem rennusutr (formula) nixchit kelem.

Dhortoreuylea jivanchi utpot'ti udkant zali ani taka lagun udok hem jivo-utpot'ti zaunche adimposun ostitvant asa oxem nixchitoponnan mhonnum yeta. Dhortorechea prixtthobhagauyolo sumar tin choturthanx bhag udkanuch veapil'lo asa.

Vott'tt udkachea 97% udok doreant aspauta ani uril'lem 3% udok dhortorechea kott'tteaponda 5 kimi. Cher ani dhortorechea prixtthobhagauyor 12 kimi. Cher sampddotta. Raimondd nes hea emerikon udkovoigoneanikan udkache vanttnnevixincho (distribution) toyar kelelo tokto fuddem dil'lo oso:

monzat ani vonspot hatunt udok ho ek mhotvacho ghottok asa. Monxache kuddint sumar 70% zomniuyole vonspotint 50-75% ani udkantole vonspotint 95 te 99% udok axta.Kaim khoniz podarthant, udok somyogit (combined) ovsthent asta.

Dhortorecher dorea, nhomyo, vhall, bamyo hea rupan udok melltta. Kaim suvatimni zomnisokoil udok asat, punn khub khol axil'leakaronnan tem bhair kaddop porouddona. Ghonrup udok ut'tor ani dokxinn dhruvankoddlea sodanch himachchhidit axil'lea vattharant, xit kottivondhant ani her unch dongrancher disun yeta. Koreancho paus poddun himourxavo zata ten'na tachem ostitv disun yeta. Baxporup udok vatauronnant komi-chodd promannant sodanch asta. Soimik udkachem, borf hem ek xud'dh rup. Nagri jinnekhatir lagpi udok nhoyo, sorouram ani bamyo hancheposun melltta.

Dhortorechea zolmasaun mhollear sumar 460 kotti vorsam adlea kallasaun dhortoreuyolem vott'tt udok ani tachim lokxonnam hatunt matuy bodol zaunk na. Vonspot ani monzat hamnni baxpachea rupan soddil'lem udok, dorea ani zomin hatuntlean udkachem baxpibhoun (evaporation) zaun rupan soddil'lem udok, dorea ani zomin hatuntlean udkachem baxpibhoun (evaporation) zaun udkachi toyar zal'li vaf vatauronnant pauta ani tacheposin kupam toyar zatat.

Kupamposun pausachea, himachea ani koreanchea puran udok porot dhortorek yeun melltta.Hatuntolem kaim udok doreant jhirpun vota ani oxe toren hem zolourton va zolsthityontochkr (water cycle) eksarokem sasnnachem chaluch urta.

Doreachea udkant anikuy her podarthancho aspavo asta. Dhortoreuylea udkachem vott'tt vozon=1.1414x10 18 mettrik tton. Doreantlea mitthachem vott'tt vozon=mgcej 4.84x10 16 mettrik tton. Doreantlea udkant aspaupi vegvegolle podarth oxem: NaCl-2.7%, MgCl2-0.4%, MgSo4-0.2%, CaSO4 -0.15%, KCL -0..5%.

Bhoutik gunnodhrm':

xud'dh udakak ruch ani vas asna. Udkacho patoll thor regviroit asta. Punn tachea datt (2 mi. Poros chodd) thorantlean pollet zalear udok nillsor dista. Udok thondd korpak laglear 40 se. Tapmanacher paumeren udok akunchit zata. Tapman tache sokoil laglem mhonnttokoch tem prosronn zaupak lagta ani 00 se. Tapmanak gottheta. Udkachea hea gunnodhrmak udkachem ‘osongot prosronn’ (anomalous expansion) oxem mhonnttat. 40 se. Tapman axil'lem udok hea tapmanak soglleant chodd asta. Udkachi khasa uxnnota sogllea podarthanchea khasa uxnnoteporos chodd asa. Taka lagun udok soukas tapta ani soukasayen thondd zata ani oxem teron vatauronnachea tapmanachem niyontronn zata. Udkache her bhoutik gunnodhrm' oxe- gotthonn bindu: 00 se; 00 se. Tapmanavellar udkachi ghonta: 1.00.

Grem'/gho.Sem'mi.; borfachi ghonta (0 0se. Tapmanavellar): 0.92 grem'/gho.Sem'mi.; drovibhounachi (fusion) uxnnota: 79.7 kelri/grem'.Ddigri; ukoll bindu: 100 0 se.; baxpikoronnachi uxnnota: 539.4 kelri/grem' soglleant unch ghonta (3.980 se tapmanavellar): 1.000073 grem'/gho.Sem'mi.;krantik tapman: 374 0.; krantik dab: 217.5 Atms.; khasa somvahokota: 1x10-7 mho sem'mi.-1 (ekdom' xod'dh udok); vidyut oparyota sthirank: 78; sandrota: 75.6 ddain/sem'mi. (00 se.Kodde) ani 74.22 ddain/sem'mi (200 se. Kodde); pronnmonank (refractive index): 1.333, trik bindu:borf-udok-baxp hanchea sontulonant, 0,00980 se. 4.579 mimi. Hg cho dab astona; rochnnuk=haiddrozon: eksizon, ghonfoll: 2.00288:1.000, vozon- 1.00797: 15.9994.Udkantlean vid'dut provahachem somvhon khub soukasayen zata. Udok ho boro vidrauk asun tatunt zaite podarth virgollottat. Rosainik gunnodhrm':

rosainik nodren udok hem thir somyug zaun asa. 20000 se.Tapmanakodden legit vott'tt udkachea fokot 0.6% droveachem tachea muldroveant opghotton zata,dhatumsarokilem unttele dhon vid'dut dhatu, totthi tapmanakodden udkachem vightton ghoddoun haddttat ani haiddrozon vayuchi utpot'ti zata. Tambem, chandi, bhangor, paro, kothil hea dhatunchi udkacher va vafecher koslich kria zaina. 2. Florin, klorin, bromin hancheasarkea unchelea rinn-vid'dut odhatovi-i muldroveanchi kotthi tapmanakodden udkavangodda vikria zaun ozhoni-i eksizon utpon'n zata, zalear klorin ani bromin sureachea ujvaddant eksizonochi vightton ghoddoun haddttat. 4. Dhatvi-i eksaiddamvangodda udkachi vikria zatkoch udkant he eksaidd virgollottat. Dekhik: kxari-i dhatu. 5. Udkachi ani vidrauy odhatu eksaiddanchi vikria zatkoch omlanchi (acids) nirmiti zata. 6. Nirzol (anhydrous) kxoramvangodda udkachi vikria zatkoch, tatunt bhorsota ani hydrates toyar zatat. 6. Omlam (acids),kxaram (bases), kxarkam hea vid'dut vichchhedeanchi (electrolytes) kortokoch, vidyut-vichchhedy (electrolyte) vidravanchem vightton zata. 8. Zoli-i vichchhedon (hydrolysis): dubllea omlanchim ani kxarkanchim kxaram ordim ani purai vighttit zatat. 9. Utprerokanchem kam' korta. Vixlexonnatmok porikxa:

1. Soddiym' va pottexiyomocho lhan kuddko udkachea somprkant yetkoch, haiddrozon vayu toyar zata ani to pett gheta. 2. Nirzol kopor solfett (CuSO4)udkachea somprkant yetkoch nillo rong toyar zata. 3. ‘karl fixor’ vikriyok (reagent) drouy udkavangodda bhorsotokoch gulabi rong toyar zata. Suryomallent udok tinuy rupamni melltta:

ghon (borf), drou (udok) ani vayu (vaf). Sureachea lagsar udok fokot zata. Dhortorecheruy udok tachea tinuy rupant melltta. Soglle torechea jivitakhatir udok hi ek mullavi goroz zaun asa. Vayurupantolem udok:

zoli-i baxporupi (Water Vapour-vaf) udkantlea rennunchi halchal ekmekamporos purai svotontr asta. Udkachea rennuntole onnu ekmekankodden khub unch oxa dhruvi-i (polar) rosainik bondhamni guntil'le astat. Hatuntlea doreka bondhachem haiddrozon tonk tapmanameren vaf tapoili zalear ti vichchhedit (dissociate) zaun haiddrozon onnu ani haiddroksil mukt mulkam (Free radicals) toyar kortat. H2O=H+OH. Tapman demvytokoch he utpad (products) porot ekmekank mellun udkache rennu toyar zatat. Vafecheo choddxo soglleo rosainik vikria drourup udkasarkeoch astat. 3740 se. Tapmanachea voir drovikoronn (liquefaction) korinasotona zai te ghontepromann, vaf sompiddit (compressed) korum yeta. 0.04 gre./gho.Sem'mi. Itle unch ghontekodden udkant kaim kxaram virgollottat. (sadaronn ovsthent vafecha ghonta =0.0005882 gre./gho.Sem'mi.) unchelea tapmanachi ani dabachi hi ovstha kaim karyokxom' vafechea yontrosonchant disun yeta. Ghonrup udok:

borfant udkachem rennu haiddrozon bondhamni veusthit rochnnukechea kroman bandil'le astat, hem sokoil dil'le akritiuylean spoxtt zata.Ghonrupi borfak zor 2000Atms. Poros chodd dab dilo zalear panch vegvegolle sfottik mellttat. Hea sfottikanche rup nimnnem tapman ani dab hacher thorail'le asta. Te soglle udkaporos chodd ghon astat. (borf ho udkaporos lhou asta.) dab demvylear hea sogllea sfottikanchem porot samany borfant rupantor zata. Ghon rupant udkachea rennuchem ghonfoll =32.3A3 (32.2X10-24 gho. Sem'mi.) itlem asta. Drourup udok:

drourup udkantole rennuy haiddrozon bondhamni bandil'le astat. Jen'na borf vitllotta, ten'na hatuntole kitlexech bondh tutt'tat ani je bondh ekttham-i urtat te komi axil'lean tankam rennuncho rochnakrom' veusthit dourop xoky zaina. Rennum'modole haiddrozon bondh he udkachea kaim khaxelea gunnodhrmachem karonn zaun asat. Hatuntolo ek khaxelo gunnodhrm' mhollear – udkachem xitlikoronn (cooling) kelem zalear 3.980 se. Tapmanameren udkachem akunchon zata. Punn hea tapmanasokoil udkachem prosronn (expansion) zata. Dekhun 3.980 se. Tapmanakodden udkachi ghonta soglleant chodd asta. Tache voir ani tache sokoil hi ghonta komi zata. Ghonrup udkache ghonta drourup udkachea ghonteporos komi asta. Drourup ani vayurup ovsthent udkachem ghonfoll=18.83 A3 itlem asta. Udkache upeg:

monis, pranni ani vonspot hanchea jivitakhatir udok hi ek mullavi goroz zaun asa. Vikriyok (reactant). Vidrauk (solvent) ani utprerok (catalyst) mhunn voigoneanik proyogoxallent ani udyegokarokhaneant udkacho mottea promannant vapor zata. Littor,kelri sarkea kaim bhoutik ekakanchem nidrxon korpakhatir udok hem promann oxem mantat. Khas gurutv (specific gravity), sapekx sandrota (relative viscosity) hancheasarkea kaim bhoutik gunnodhrmanchi tulla korpakhatir udok hem promann oxem mantat. Barjiurovim ani bottiurovim malachem hadd-vhor korpakhatir udkacho marg vaprotat. Uril'le ani ghann podarth soddpakhatir udok hem ek boreapoiki sadhon asa.

Porikxeponni-i madhyom', xitlikoronn modhyost, nivll korpachem sadhon toxench uxnnota ani xokti hanchea utpadonakhatir ani vitronnakhatir udkacho mottea promannant vapor zata. Borf toyar korpakhatir ani on'n tigoupakhatir (food preservation) udkacho upeg zata.Pemvpakhatir, nustem goroupakhatir, loukanoikhatir ani her monoronzonachem sadhon mhunn udkacho vapor zata. Udok ho ek vixvoveapi vidravi zaun asa. Sogllea khonddancho akar bodlun uddoita, sobond dhortori zhaddun kaddtta. Dhortorek ek novench svorup divpachi udkant takod asa.Sureachea khor kirnnamposun udok dhortorechi rakhonn korta. Sorouram ani nhomyo hancheposun mellpi udok pivpakhatir vaprochepoilim tacher xud'dhikoronnakhatir kaim rosainik prokria kortat.Voijki ani sonxodhon vibhagant khas urdhvopatit (distilled) udok vaprotat.

Ofenod udok (Hard Water) :

udok khoddpantlean vhamvot vota ten'na tatunt kelxiyom' ani megnexiyom' hanchim solfettam ani kloraiddam asot zalear tim tatunt virgollottat. Karbon ddai-esaidd thoddea promannant virgollil'lo asta. Oslem karbon ddai-eksaidd bhorosl'lem udok kelxiyom' ani megnexiyom' karbonettam axil'lea khoddpanchea sangatant ailem mhonnttokoch rosainik vikria zaun kelxiyom' ani megnexiyom' baikarbonettam onukroman toyar zatat ani tim vidrauy axil'lean udkant virgollottat. Him baikarbonettam, solfettam, kloraiddam axil'lem udok xabban kopdde dhuvpakhatir vaprunk mellnat. Oslea udkant xabbacho fenner yena mhunn taka ‘ofedan udok’ (fenner no yeupi-Hard Water)’ oxem mhonnttat. Jea udkant oslim kxaram asnat, tea udkak ‘fenod udok’ (soft water) oxem mhonnttat.

Ofenod udok jen'na xabban kopdde dhuvpakhatir vaprotat, ten'na xabbavangodda tea udkantlea yomsuganchi rosainik vikria zata ani ovidrauy podarth (dekhik-kelxiyom' sttiorett, megnexiyom' sttiorett) toyar zatat. Taka lagun xabu pedd'ddear zatach, toxench toyar zal'loya ovidrauy podarthancho thor kopddyemr bosun te anik lollpachi xokyotai asta.Ofenodoponn (hardless) don prokarochem asta. 1. Tatpurotem ofned udok: hem udok kelxiyom' ani megnexiyom' baikarbonetts hanka lagun zata. 2. Sasnnachem ofned udok: hem udok kelxiyom' ani megnexiyom' kloraidd hankam lagun tair zata. Tatpurotem ofnedoponn hem udok khotkhotailear na zata zalear kaimochem ofenodoponn udok xizoilear legit pois zaina. Zodd udok:

samany udkacho rennubhar 18 asta. Rennubhar 18 poros chodd asta tea udkak ‘zodd udok’ (Heavy Water) oxem mhonnttat. Zodd udok vott'tt 18 prokarochem asta.Hatuntlean ddyutteriyom' eksaidd (rennusutr: D-O-D; rennubhar; 20) haka sadaronnoponnan zodd udok oxem mhonnttat. Zodd udkachea hea rennunt sadea udakachea rennuntlea haiddrozon onnunchea zagear 2 drouyomanank axil'lea haiddrozon somsthanikache (Isotopes) don onnu astat.Zodd udkache kaim bhoutik gunnodhrm' oxe- 200 se.; kodde ghonta: 1.1059; ukoll bindu: 101.420 se.; vitoll bindu: 3.820 se. Uchch ghontekoddolem kapman: 11.40 se.; prixnnot'tann: 67.8 ddain/sem'mi.; pronnmonank: 1.328.

Hea udkacheo rosainik vikria samany udkabhoxenuch astat punn vikriecho veg mat komi asta. Soston zonaurank zodd udok piet zalear chodd tan lagta. Hea udkaposun bianchem onkuronn (germination) zaunk pauna. Zodd udok soimik udkant melltta ani hea soimik udkachem porthun urdhvopaton (distillation) kortokoch zodd udok melltta.Rosainik ani jiuvigoneani-i sonxodhon kareant zodd dokacho mottea promannant vapor zata. Bhouvarik udok (Polywater):

roxiantole eऩ.En. Foddeakin toxench bi. Vhi. Dderjegyuin ani tanche vangddi hamnni 1962 chea sumarak bhouvarikachea (don va odik rennuncho somyog zaun toyar zal'lea zottil somyugachea) rupant axil'lo ek udkacho prokar sodun kaddlo. Tache ginnodhrm' samany udkaporos matxe veglle asat oxem mot tamnni manddlem. Punn uprant zaitea proyogoxallent zal'lea sonxodhonan legit tachem ostitv sid'dh zalem ki, bhouvarik udok hem kaim kolil (colloidal) opdroveam axil'lem samany udkachench ek rup asa. Samskritik sondrbh:

(somskrit-jiun, dol, solil, toi ombu, nirod, nir, gujrati- panni,hindi-pani, french-o, inglix-vottor, portgez-agv, moratthi-panni, kon'nodd-niru).Ek mukhel on'n. Hachi veakhea oxi- ‘zolti jiuyti lokaniti’- lokank jive dolrota tem zol va udok.

Udok hem utor mull somskrit bhaxentole asa. Konknni bhaxentoi heach utracho vapor zata.Udok utrachi vyutpot'ti oxi kortat. ‘ud’ mhollear voir va olem korop. ‘ko’ ho svarthi protyoi mhollam. Voidik sahiteant udkachi deuta ‘vorunn’ oso ul'lekh aila. Hi deuta udkacher niyontronn dourota. Tichem vostr udok asun tem ti pangrunk gheta.

Somskrit sahiteant udkache kaim ul'lekh fuddletoren yetat: tochy dodean'noro nityom yodichchhedobhutimatmon:I dhonyom yoxsyomayuxyom zoldanomihochyotoIIdanrazII udkamsarokem dan na oxem danraz sangta.

Rosgunnobohul drouyom', soumea:svolpapoddntorikxoprobhova: prokritixita:lohvyoxchauyoktorosaxch (chorkosutr:26.39) udok hem sobhavikoponnan mollbantlean poddpi thondd, lhou ros-pak zaina oxem drouy asa.

Rigvedant (5.85:6), ‘nhoim doreakodden margokromonn korun doreak melltta punn dorea ken'nach bhorna hem vorunnachem kuvaddem nhoi mum?’ oxem mhollam.

Udok hem ponchmohabhutantolem srixttivelem bhut asa. Ponchmohabhutanchea droveache utpot'tichem he karnnobhut axil'lean sohy rosachem udok hem somvayi karonn asa. Tacho vornn xukl, ros modhur ani sporx xitol asa. Drouyotv ho tacho sobhavik gunn asa.

Mull udok hem sogllem ek aslem tori dex va kall hankam onusorun tem torekovar zata.Tepasot tem hitkarok va ghatok zaum yeta. Mollbantlean poddil'lem udok chondr, vayu ani sury hancho sporx zal'lean thondd, xud'dh aऩi nitoll asta. (akaxatpotitom zolom somvaivurmoi:srixttombhouti, hithit'tve tod'dexokalomopekxote).

Udok, prithvi hea totvakodden sombondit axil'lean udkacho gunn prithvichea gunnank lagun bodlotat.

Dhove zomnit- turott udok, 2. Kallxe zomnit – koddu udok, 3. Hollddulle zomnit –kxaryukt, 4. Khare zomnit – kharem udok, 5. Dongrachea mullsant- matxem tikh, kalli zomin- katoll, godd. Udkache sadaronn gunn:

jiunoxkt divpi, tripti korpi, puxttik, tan bhagoupi, kallzak thondd, hitkor, lhou oxem asa. Kalmananusar udkache gunn vingddovingodd asat.

Vorxa: varxik zolom'-gurvarbhixyondi modhurom'I orth- udok zodd ani ardrota nirmann korpi, godd asta.

Xorod: tonu loghvonobhixyondi, et'totusukumarannomI snigdhobhuyixtth bhojnanam,bhojyobhkxoledhyopeyexuch xosyoteI orth- udok, lhou, nirmoll, ardrota unne aspi snigdh ani choturvidh, on'n khaleauporant pivpak yogy.

Hemnt: snigdhom, vrixyom, bolhitom guruI orth-udok, snigdh, zodd, xubh, ghottsannik borem.

Xixir: hemntat loghutorom kofnatojitI orth- udok bemontporos chodd lhou, kof-vat nax korpi.

Vosont: uxaimodhuromrukxomriI orth- udok turott, godd, rukx oxem asta.

Grixm': onbhixyondiI orth- fodok, ardrota unne no korpi

(chorkosutr : 27.2.3.6) udok hem utor laun zaite somskar, ukti toyar zaleat.

Udok soddop – dan korop. (2) udokkria – ontyextti xud'dh korpakhitor ghorbhor ximpddop.

Dekhun ghor povitr, xant ani sukhsomadhanoyukt zata.


Polleiat[बदल]

Water

Chitr Prodorxonn[बदल]

Sondorbh[बदल]

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