Uzvadd

विकिपीडिया कडल्यान
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A triangular prism dispersing a beam of white light. The longer wavelengths (red) and the shorter wavelengths (blue) get separated.
An example of refraction of light. The straw appears bent, because of refraction of light as it enters liquid from air.
A cloud illuminated by sunlight

Jea praronn (radiation) svorupachea torongorupi urjechi nond dollo gheunk xokta,taka ujvadd oxem mhonnttat. Sureachea ujvaddak lagun amkam dhortoreuyleo vostu dixtti poddttat. Ratikodden chondr, sureaposun poraurtit (reflected) kel'lo ujvadd dita. Ujvadd hi bhoutikoxastrachi ek mhotvachi xakha zaun asa. Zoxepori uxnnota, vidyut, chumbkota hi ek torechi urza asta, toxich ujvadd hi ek torechi urza (energy) zaun asa. Fottofilm' ujvaddant haddlear kallem zata. Ujvaddachea zhotant prarnnomapok (radiometer) dourlear tachim patim ghumvpak lagtat. Hacheuylean oxem disun yeta ki ujvadd koslo tori vaur (work) korit asta. Dekhunoch, ujvaddak ek prokarochi urza oxem mhonnttat.

Itihas:[बदल]

i.So.Po. Sovea xenkddeant grik totvogone paithegoros hannem ujvadd mhollear ‘amchea dolleantlean yeupi (zol'leach sporxok indriasaroke) sporxok astole ani khaxele vostuk hea sporxokancho sporx zalo mhonnttokoch ti vost amkam dixil'leachi zannvikai zata’oxi kolpona manddli. I.So.Po. Tisrea xenkddeantolea epikyuros (grik totvogone) hannem ‘vostuposun poraurtit zal'lo ujvadd dolleant ailo mhonnttokoch ti vost apnnak dista’ oxi kolpona manddil'li. Teach xotmanantochlea yuklidd hea namnechea gonnitoxastrogoneak ‘apati kon (angle of incidence) ani poraurton kon (angle of reflection) he sombhuz astat’ ho poraurtonacho nem' khobor axil'lo oxem mhonnttat.

I.So. Poilea xenkddeantolea ttolemi hea namnechea jeotirvidak vatauronni-i pronnmonak (refraction) lagun gireanchea mollbantlea suvatent bhasman bodol zata, hem khobor axil'lem.Pronnmonache nem' sotravea xenkddeant vhilebrortt snel hea ddoch xastrogonean sodun kaddle oxem mhonnttat. Punn tache adim ikravea xotmanantuch ol hoson hea orob xastrogoneak he nem' khobor axil'lem oxem mhonnttat. Pondravea xenkddeant lionardo da vhinchi hea xastrogonean ‘ujvaddachem prosaronn soroll vollint zata’ hi gozal sodun kaddli. Yohanes kelpor hea jeotirvidan sotravea xenkddeant ujvaddavixinche anikuy kaim nem' sodun kaddle. Sotravea xenkddeachea dusrea ordant nyutton (1642-1727) hannem arvil'lea ujvaddavixinchea obheasachi bunead ghali. Komvchechea bhigantlean (prism) dhovea ujvaddachi xolaka (beam of light) soddli zalear dusreutten soptorongancho vornnopott (spectrum) melltta. Ho soptorongi ujvadd urfatte diksthitint (orientation) douril'lea bhingantlean soddlo zalear soptoronganchem ekikoronn zaun porot ghovi ‘ujvadd xolaka’ melltta ho mhotvacho proyog tannem kelo. Tachevelean dhovo ujvadd ho soptoronganchea bhorsonneposun toyar zal'lo asta oso nixkorx tannem kaddlo. ‘ujvadd ho otisukxm' ani vostumanoviroit oxa konnamposun toyar zal'lo asta’ oso ujvaddachea svorupavixincho aplo sid'dhant nyutton hannem manddlo.

Heach kallkhonddant oladdos romor (1644-1710) hea ddenix jeotirvidan guru gireabhomvotonni ghumvpi chondranchea girannank lagpi kall mezun tacheuylean poilim ujvaddacho veg nixchit kelo. Ef. Em'. Grimaldi (1618-63) hea ittaliyon xastrogonean ujvaddachea vivrtonacho (diffraction) sod lailo.

Ujvadd mhollear khoinchea tori madhyomantole torong asat, hea sid'dhantachea totvacher haigenjh (1629-95) hannem torong sid'dhantachi bunead ghali. Hea sid'dhantaurovim haigenjh hannem poraurton, pronnmon hea ujvaddachea avixkaranchi viskottaunni keli. Ddomos yong (1773-1829) ani e. Je. Frenel (1788-1827) hamnni tatunt moladik bhor ghali. 1887 to e. E. Maikelson ani i. Ddoblyu. Morli hamnni ujvadd-vegavixinche kaim sid'dhant ujvaddaile. 1864 to je. Si. Meksovel hachim ‘meksovel somikoronnam’ ujvaddak ailim. 1887 to ech. Ar. Horttojh hannem-i ‘ujvadd ho vidyut chumbki-i torongorup asa’ oxem sid'dh korpakhatir kaim proyog kele.

Vidyut chumbki-i torong sid'dhantak lagun ujvaddavixinchea sogllea prosnanchi purai viskottaunni zali na. Dekhun 1900 to, maks plank hea zormon xastrogonean punz sid'dhantauyolem somikoronn ujvaddaun ‘punz sid'dhant’ (Quantum theory) hi krantikarok kolpona manddli.

Ugom':[बदल]

ujvaddache ugom' don toranche astat. Uxnn ani thondd. Sury, gire he uxnn ujvaddache ugom' zaun asat. Vidyut provah soddlo zalear tontuncho tap chodd zaun vaddtta ani bhitl'lean ujvadd yeta. Toxench kosloi dhatu khub tapoilo zalear to ujvadd dita. He soglle uxnn ujvaddache ugom' asat. Kx-kironn, holldduvo fosforos, tti. Vhi. Cho podd'ddo him soglim thondd uddvaddachea ugmachim udahoronnam.

Ttyublaitt, bolb hancho ujvadd osonkhy zal'lo asta. Bindu ugmacho ujvadd soglle votten vota. To je soroll vatten vota tankam ujvaddache kironn oxem mhonnttat. Eka bindu ugmaposun osonkhy ujvaddachim kirnnam yetat. Ttyublaitt, bolb him bindu ugmaposun toyar zal'lea vistarit ugmachim (extended source) udahoronnam asat. Ujvaddachem prosaronn soroll vollint zata.

Pausachea disamni amkam zoglacho ujvadd poilim dista ani magir goddgoddacho avaz aikupak yeta. Toxench pois fugett laili zalear ujvadd poilim dista ani magir avaz aikupak yeta. Hacheuylean oxem disun yeta ki ujvaddacho veg avazachea vegaporos chodd asa. Nirvat pokllosannit (vacuum) ujvaddacho veg=3x10 8 mi./sekond asta mhollear eka sekondak ujvadd tin lokx kimi. Prosaronn korta. Eka vorsak ujvadd jitlem ontor prosaronn korta, tea ontrak ek ujvadd vors (light year) oxem mhonnttat. Ek ujvadd vors=9.6x10 12 kimi. Khub poisul'lea vostunchem, dekhik, dhortori ani tare hanchemodolem ontor ujvadd vorsamni mejtat.

Ujvaddachi tiurota (Intensity of light):[बदल]

vachta astona eka tharavik tiurotayecho ujvadd amkam zai asta. Komi ujvadd poddlear dolleancher tann yeta ani chodd ujvadd poddlear dolleank tras zata. Ujvaddachi tiurota tachea ugmacher ani tachea ontracher patieono asta. Ekach zagear axil'li mennvat ani bolb hanchea ujvaddachi tiurota veglli asta. Chodd xoktichea bolbacho ujvadd mond dista. Xastri-i bhaxent oxem mhonnttat ki bolbachi onudipt (luminous) tiurotai mennvatiporos chodd asa. Vegvegllea ujvadd ugmachi onudipt tiurota vegvegolli astai onudipt tiurotechem mapon korpak candela hem ekok (unit)vaprotat. Bolbachi xokt mejpakhatir vott (watt) hem ekok vaprotat. 100 vott xoktichea bolbachi onudipt tiurota 125, konddela (candella) asta.

Dipon: (lllimination):[बदल]

ekadrea diveamukhar papelamv dourolo zalear tacher ujvadd poddtta ani tacher poddil'lo zo ujvadd dolleank dista taka ‘dipon’ oxem mhonnttat. Diveaposun ontor chodd kelem zalear dipon komi zata. Dipon mejpak loks (lux) hem ekok vaprotat.

Vyostourg nem': (Inverse Square Law) :[बदल]

diveaposun ontor chodd kelear dipon komi zata techpori ontor titlench dourolem aऩi bolbachi onudipt tiurota chodd keli zalear dipon chodd zata. Dipon ani onudipt tiurota somanupoti astat. Dipon (I in Lux), onudipt tiurota (C in Candella) ani ontor (d in meter) sokoil dil'lea nem'-sutrapromann astat.

Vegvegllea kamakhatir vegvegollem gipon lagta. Dekhik- vachpakhatir 40 te 65 loks itlem dipon asunk zai. Nattkakhatir rongmachoyeuyolem hipon chodd mhollear 270 loks itlem dourotat.

Ujvaddachem poraurton (Refletion of light):[बदल]

koslyai vostucher ujvadd poddlo zalear,tea ujvaddacho thoddo bhag poraurtit zata, thoddo bhag ti vostu sosun gheta a ti vostu parodrxok asli zalear ujvaddacho thoddo bhag arpar vota. Chokchokit ani gullgullit vostucher ujvadd chodd promannant poraurtit zata. Harxacher poddil'lo sogllo ujvadd porot yeta, mhollear poraurtit zata.

Poraurtrinache nem':[बदल]

1. Opati kironn ani poraurtit kironn stombhikeche urfatte votten asta.2. Opati kon (o) ani poraurtit kon (po) sarke astat. 3. Opati kironn, stombhika ani poraurtit kironn ekach protlant (plane) astat. Somantor kirnnoxolaka (beam of light) sopatt ani gullgullit vostucher poddlear poraurtit kirnnoxolaka somantor urta. Oslea poraurtonak ‘niymit poraurton’ oxem mhonnttat. Somantor kirnnoxolaka zor khoddboddit vostucher poddli, zalear poraurtit kirnnoxolaka somantor urnat. Oslea poraurtonak ‘oniymit poraurton’ oxem mhonnttat. Jen'na koslyai vostucher ujvadd poddtta, ten'na to zovadd poraurtit zata. Tim poraurtit kirnnam amchea dolleant votat ani tekhatir amkam ti vost dolleamni dista.

Porxoi (Parallax):[बदल]

kosli-i vost douroli zalear tachi protima (image) dista. Ti protima khoim zalea tem kollpak poraxoi pod'dhoticho upeg korcho poddtta. Dhomvte gaddyentosun bhaile votten pollelem zalear vijeche khambe ani zhaddam urfatte diken votat oxem dista. Khorem tor zhaddam, khambe ekach zagear astat punn gaddi mat cholta. Ji vost pois asta ti gaddyeche diken vota ani ji vost lagim asta ti gaddyeche urfatte diken vota oxem dista. He prokrient, zhaddam ani khambeam'modim poraxoi (parallax) asa oxem ami mhonnttat. Don vostu ekach zagear asleo zalear, tanchea modim poraxoi na oxem mhonnttat.

Polleiat[बदल]

Light

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