Vasco da Gama

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ह्या विषयावयर देवनागारींत बरयिल्लें पान वाच : वासको दा गामा
Vasco da Gama

Vasco da Gama, Vidigueiracho 1lo Count (Purtugez uchhar: [ˈvaʃku ðɐ ˈɣɐmɐ]; sumar. 1460 – 24 Dezembr 1524), ek Purtugez sodprovasi ani poilo Evropi doreamargantlean Bharotant pavpi zavn asa..Tachi Bharotachi (1497–1499) survatechi viaj  Evropak ani Asiak eka doreamargan Atlantik ani Bharoti doriank  zoddunk ani tea khatir, Ostompt ani Udentik zoddunk zavn asli,

Da Gamacho Bharotachea doreamargacho sod mhotvacho kiteak tea vorvim jagotik samrajvadachea iugak  ek vatt ugti zali ani Purtugezank ek lamb kallachem vosnnukechem samraj Asiant sthapunk ghoddlem. Doreamargantlean provas korop mhonnche Purtugezank chodd kijilanchea Bhumodheasagorak  ani bhirankull Orbi Dvikolpak tallop zavn aslem. Bhair vochpi ani porot ievpache viajechi ekunn ontor mhonnche hi iatra doreachi lambdig viaj tea kallar keloli asli, itli lamb ji Bhumodhearekha[1] koddlean jogak bhonvaddo marpa poros chodd lamb asli. 

Indies-ak pavunk zaitinch doskam tarvotti proiotn kortana, hozaramni jiv vochun, duzamni bottink opghat ani akromonn zavn, da Gama 20 Mai 1498 vorsa Calicut pavlo. Hea mosaleachea vattek koslich addkhol naslolean  Purtugez Samrajache orthvevosthek fattboll mell’llem, hem adim Ut’tor ani doreadegechea Ostompt Afrikecher adarit aslem. Mukhel mosale, poilim Dokxinn Udent Asia koddlean melloilole te kalli miriam ani tikhi zavn asle, punn rokhddench her utpon, Evropak soglle nove, hancho somavex zavnk pavlo. Purtugalak hea vostuncho ek vepari mokto sabar doskam mellunk pavlo. Ek xekddo uprant her Evropi bollam, zoxe porim Dutch Porjeraj ani Ingland, zachea fattlean Frans ani Denmark, hankam Purtugalachea mokteak ani Cape Margachea noudolachea vorteponnak avhan divpant ailem.

Da Gama hannem don Purtugez Bharoti Noudolachem fuddariponn choloilem, poilem ani chovtem. Nimannem, vhoddantlem vhodd aslem ani tem Bharota khatir poilem portopa pasun char vorsamni ailem. Hea tachea iogdana khatir, 1524 vorsa da Gama haka Bharotacho Rajiopal, nempant ailo zaka  Rajiodhikaricho kitab ani  Vidigueiracho Count 1519 vorsa dorzo dilo. Vasco da Gama,sodprovasachea itihasant ek fuddari koso zavn gelo. Tachea sodprovasa ani zoita khatir sabar argam taka sonvsarbhor divpant aileant. Purtugez raxttrio mhakaveo,  Camões hannem Os Lusíadas, tachea bhovmanak boroilam(s.1580). Bharotachi tachi poili viaj ek jogachea itihasant ek mhotvachi ghoddnni somzotat, kiteak tea vorvim doreacher-adarit jogachea bhovsonskrutivadachi survat khunnavpant ailea.[2]

Mars 2016 vorsant hozaramni hostkaragiri ani noudollacheo urlole jinos Esmeralda bottichea buddpant ailoleacheo sampoddleat, ani Gamachea armara modlo ek, Omanachea udent doreadeger sampoddla.[3]

Adlem jivit[बदल]

Vasco da Gama-chea zolmachea ganvant tachea kanxeacho, Sines, Purtugal hanga putllo.
Sines,hangasorlea Vasco da Gama hachea dokxinnechea doreak fuddo korpi putlleacho fattlean savn dekhavo
Vasco da Gama

Vasco da Gama-cho zolm 1460 vo 1469,[4]  Sines, ganvant zalo zo doreachea bondram modem Alentejo  doreadeger ek ganv, zo Purtugalachea dokxinn ostomptek urta ghoddiek eka ghorant Salas Saibinninchea Igorje lagsor zavn asa.

Vasco da Gama-cho bapui Estêvão da Gama aslo, zannem 1460 vorsa ek sordar koso Infante Ferdinand, Duke of Viseu.[5] ghorabeant kam kelam. To soinachea Order of Santiago vorga poreant voir sorunk pavlo.. Estêvão da Gama haka  Sines-acho 1460 vorsa alcaide-mór (nagrik rajiopal) nemlo, ek zutti ji tannem 1478 poriant keli; uprant to kor svikarpi ani zageacho Order commendas zavn aslo..

Estêvão da Gama, Isabel Sodré kodden kazar zalo, ji João Sodré (zaka João de Resende mhonnui vollkhotale), hachi dhuv ek Inglix orombachi boro sombond aslolea sontanachi asli.[6] Ticho bapui ani her bhav, Vicente Sodré ani Brás Sodré, hanche sombond Infante Diogo, Duke of Viseu, hachea ghorabea kodden asle ani te soinachea Order of Christ hache namneche monis asle. Vasco da Gama ho panchantlo tisro put Estêvão da Gama ani Isabel Sodré hancho aslo– (dista tea pormonnem: Paulo da Gama, João Sodré, Vasco da Gama, Pedro da Gama ani Aires da Gama hanche piraiecho. Vasco-k ek bhoinnui asli, Teresa da Gama (ji Lopo Mendes de Vasconcelos hache kodden kazar zali).[7]

da Gama-chea adlea jivita vixim thoddich mhaiti asa. Purtugez itihaskar Teixeira de Aragão suchoita ki tannem Évora ganvant xikop kelem, zoim ghoddiek tannem gonnit ani somudiatrechem xikop kelem astolem. To Abraham Zacuto, hachea khal xiklo mhonn davo korpant ieta zo ek jiotixi ani jiotixastr zanna aslo, punn da Gama-cho choritrkar Subrahmanyam hem pationv nozo oxem somzota.[8]

Sumar 1480 vorsa, da Gama-n aplea paicho pattlav kelo (Sodrés-acho korchea poros) ani Order of Santiago[9] hantunt proves kelo.  Santiago-cho voddil Prince John aslo, zo xinvasonar 1481 vorsa Portugalacho John II raza koso choddlo. John II haka Order-achem pixem laglolem, ani da Gamas-achi umed hea vorvim vaddunk pavli.

1492 vorsa, John II hannem da Gama-k eka misanvant  Setúbal bondrarr Algarve hangasor  French botti tabeant ghevnk patthoilo jem xantichea kallar Purtugez bottink akromonn korpak zavn aslem -zoxeak toxem zobab divop aslem—ek potkor ghevpacho vavr zo soddsoddit ani porinnam zaisarko kelo.[10]

da Gama adim sodprovas[बदल]

15vea xekddeachea survatek, Purtugez iatra zachi manddavoll Kunvor Henry the Navigator hannem keloli, te Afriki doreadeger pavlole, chodd korun ostompt Afrikechea girestkaie khatir (chodd korun bhangrak) Tannim Purtugezanchi doreachi zannvai vistarloli, punn hem dakhovpache khatir kaim faideachem naslem. Henrychea mornna 1460 vorsa uprant, Purtugez Razvotten ho proiotn chalu dovrunk bhov thoddi umed dakhoili ani 1469 vorsa, durlokx kelolea Afriki veparak eka khasgi Lisboachea vepar sonsthek viklo zacho fuddari Fernão Gomes aslo.Thoddea vorsam modem, Gomesachea kopitamni Purtugez zannvaiecho vistar  Gulf of Guinea hanga kelo je bhangrachea kochreacho, Melegueta miriam,hostidont ani up-Saharachea zulumacho vepar kortale. Jen’na Gomesachem odikarpotr novsornni korpak 1474 vorsa ailem, Kunvor John (fuddaracho John II), hannem aplea bapaik Afonso V of Portugal  Afriki odhikarpotr apnnak divpak sanglem.

Vasco da Gama leaving the port of Lisbon, Portugal

1481 vorsa apunn Raza zatokuch,  Portugaacho John Il hannem zaitem sudarop kelem. Somrattachem samontxai voir ovlumbun ravop unnem korunk, John II haka rajeachem bhanddar bandpachi goroz asli, tannem rajeacho vepar hem korpak ek mukhel ghottok koso manlo. John II che nodre khal, bhangar ani zulumancho vepar ostompt Afrikent boroch vaddlo, Chodd faideachea Evropachea ani Asiachea mosaleachea veparant bhitor sorunk taka umed asli,ji chodd xi zomnivelean zatali. Tea vellar, hacho mokto VenicePorjerazacho aslo jem zomnivelea margantlean, Levantine ani Egyptian bondrantlean  Tambddea Dorea udexim Bharotachea mosaleachea bazarpetthe kodden kortale.  Afriki khonddachea bhonvtonni viaj marun Asia khatir ek doreamarg sodunk, John II hannem ek novo hetu aplea kopitam khatir bosoilo.

Vasco da Gama 20 vorsancho astana, razachea ievzonneak foll mellunk laglolem. 1487 vorsa, John II hannem don gupt her, Pero da Covilhã ani Afonso de Paiva, zomnivelean Udent Afrikek ani Bharotant, Egypt margan mosalleacheo bazaarpettho ani veparache marg sodunk patthoile. Motto sod rokhddoch laglo jen’na John IIcho kopit  Bartolomeu Dias  Cape of Good Hope hacho bhonvaddo marun portolo ani 1488 vorsa Fish River (Rio do Infante) poreant sod lailea uprant jem atanchem Dokxinn Afrika asa ani onvollkhi doreadeg ut’tor udent poreant posorloli asa mhonn topastoch.

Diasan sodun kaddloleachem ani da Covilhã ani de Paiva, hannim melloiloli mhaitichi zoddnni ani hea vegllea bhagank faidexir veapari marg Bharoti Mhasagorant korunk ek provas sod korpeachi sid’dh korunk goroz asli.

Poili viaj[बदल]

Vasco da Gamachea poile viajicho dorea marg (1497–1499)

 8 Julh 1497 Vasco da Gama hannem ek char bottincho ani Lisboantle 170 monxancho ghevn fuddakar kelo. Afrika tem Bharot ani porot hea provasachem ontor Bhumodhearekha[11][12] koddlean jogak bhonvaddo marpa poros chodd lamb aslem. Provas korpeam modem Purtugalacho chodd onnbhovi, Pero de Alenquer, Pedro Escobar, João de Coimbra, ani Afonso Gonçalves hancho somavex aslo.Kitlo lok dor bottint aslo tachi khatri na punn sumar 55 portole ani don botti xenddleo. Bottim modleo don carracks asleo, jeo viaje khatir noveo bandloleo, her caravel asleo ani ek purvonnechi bott asli.[11]

Char botti oxeo asleo:

  • São Gabriel, Vasco da Gama hannem fuddariponn choloiloli; ek carrack  178 ttonacho, lambai 27 m, rundai 8.5 m, draft 2.3 m, xiddam 372 m²
  • São Rafael, Paulo da Gamah tachea bhavan fuddariponn choloiloli, tosleach akarachi zoxi São Gabriel
  • Berrio (addnanv, odhikrutponni São Miguel vollkhovpant ailoli), ek caravel, adlea dona pasun matxe lhan, zachem fuddariponn Nicolau Coelho hannem kelem.
  • Ek santteachi bott zachem nanv nokllot, zachem fuddariponn Gonçalo Nunes choloilolem, jika Mossel Bay (São Brás) Dokxinn Afrikent[5] buddpachem nirmonn ailem.[5]

Cape kodden viaj[बदल]

Cape of Good Hope, Dokxinn Afrikent Vasco da Gamachea Khursak iadostika

Sodprovas Lisboak savn 8 Julhak 1497 vorsa bhair sorlo, Adlea sod provas korpeamni kelolo toch Afrikechea doreadege velo Tenerife ani Cape Verde zunveam marg tannem dhorlo. Atanchea Sierra Leone, dorea deger pavtochm da Gama hannem ek vatt ugtea somdiran dokxinnek dhorli, Bhumodhearekha upun ani Dokxinn Atlantikechea vosontrutu sodun zacho Bartolomeu Dias hannem 1487 vorsa sod lailolo.[13] Hi vatt iesiesvi zavnk pavli ani 4 Novembr 1497, sodprovas Afikechea doreadeger denvlo. Tin odik mhoine bottimni viaj marli ani 10,000 odik kilometr (6,000 mi) uktea doreantlean to zalo, ek soglleant lambdig viaj zomni pelean tea vellar ti zavnk pavli.[11][14]

16 Decembr meren, armaran Great Fish River (Eastern Cape, Dokxinn Afrika) – pas keli zoim Dias portololo – ani udkantlean provas kelo zo adim Evropeanank onvollkhi aslo. Natalam ievpachim aslolean, da Gama and tachea sangateamni te pasar zatolea zageak Natal nanv dilem, zacher Purtugezint orth "Kristacho zolm" aslo.

Mozambique[बदल]

Vasco da Gama hannem 2 tem 29 Mars 1498 vell Mozambique zunvea lagsor sarlo. Orobancho xek aslolo zago Udent Afrikechea doreadegecho ek Bharoti Mhasagorachea veparacho ek mhotvacho bhag zavn aslo.Kristanvank thollave lok ghoddiek virodhi astole hem ghabrun., da Gaman Musolmanacho bhes ghetlo ani Mozambiquechea Sultanachi bhett ghetli. Kirkoll vepareacheo vostu tache kodden aslolean, ek rajkorpeak bori xi bhett divnk ghoddunk na. Thollavea lokak rokddoch da Gama ani tachea monxancho dubav laglo.Eka virodhi zomeachea bollak lagun da Gamak Mozambiquentli pollapoll kaddchi poddli, da Gaman protikar korun aple nalle soddle ani bondr soddlem.[15]

Mombasa[बदल]

Adhunik Kenya lagsor, iatra, bottintlea mhalachi chori korpak lagle, Orbi vepari bottink luttunk lagle zanche lagim xostram nasli nhoi mhonn khoddegant nallio. Purtugez poile Evropi Mombasa bondrak bhettunk pavle jem 7 tem 13 Abril 1498 zavnk pavlem, punn tankam virodhak fuddo korcho poddlo ani veginuch thoinche bhair sorle.

Malindi[बदल]

Vasco da Gamacho khambo Malindi, zo portopachea viajent ubo korpant ailo

Vasco da Gama ut’torek vochot ravlo, ani 14 Abril 1498 ixttagotichea Malindi bondrar pavlo, fuddareank  Mombasa kodde dusmankai asli.. Thoim tankam Bharoti vepari poile disle. Da Gama ani tachea monxamni eka pailottachi zaka monsoon vareachi zannvai asli seva ghetli jea vorvim iatrechem margdorxon Calicut jem Bharotachea dokxinn ostomptek urta, thoim poriant te korunk pavtole. Pailottache vollkhe vixim zhorinchem mot vegllem asa,konn taka Kristanv, ek Musolman ani ek  Gujrati mhonnttat. Ek paromporik kanni pailottak famad Orbi viaj marpi Ibn Majid mhonntta, punn somkalin borovpam Majidak dusre kodden dovortat ani thoim tea vellar lagsar asunk zaina mhonnttat.[16] Khoinchech Purtugez itihaskar tea kallache Ibn Majidacho ul’lekh kornant. Vasco da Gaman Malindi soddun Bharota kodden 24 Abril 1498 vochpak sorlo.

Calicut, India[बदल]

Vasco da Gama Calicut pavtana
1850 vorsantlemeEk tikheachem kantop, adhunik hatachea rongovpant.Tem Vasco da Gamachi Zamorina lagim bhett dakhoita.
Calicut lagsar Kappad hanga ximefator.

Kappadu, Kozhikode (Calicut),  Malabar Doreadeger (atanchem Bharotachem Keroll rajio) hanga armar, 20 Mai 1498 pavli. Calicutacho raza, Samudiri (Zamorin), zo tea vellar Ponnani hea dusrea rajdhanint ravtalo, pordexi armar thoim pavlam mhonn kollttoch to Calicutak portolo. Tarvotteak,,paromporik pavnnar korun ghevpant ailo, zantunt ek vhodd mirvonnuk unneant unnem 3,000 xosxostr aslolea Nair hancho aspav aslo, punn ek Zamorin kodden mulakhot kosloch spoxtt porinnam haddunk pavunk na. Jen’na thollavea odhikareamni da Gamachea armarak vicharlem, "He suvater tuka kiteak haddla?", tannim zobab dilo ki te "Kristanvanchea ani mosaleachea."[17] sodant aileat. da Gamant Zamorinak Dom Manuelacheo  bhetto jeo dhaddloleo – char hatkapi kobaio xendurea rongachea lugttacheo, so chepim, char ponvlleanche fantte, bara almasares,ek pitullchea aidonachi pett, sakhricho khonn, telachim don bol’lam ani ek mhonvanchem bol’l– kirkoll asleo ani chhap marunk pavunk nant. Zamorinache odhikari hantunt bhangar vo rupem kiteak na tea vixim chintunk poddle. Musolman vepari je da Gamank aple virodhi somzotale tannim to ek sado doriantlo luttmaro ani ek rajacho rajdut. nhoi oxem suchoilem.[18] Vasco da Gaman,k kiteak tachean mhal vikunk zaina dekhun, ti razan bhair marli, zannem da Gaman xulk farik korunk zai mhonnnettan sanglem - chodd korun bhangran – her vepaream bhaxen, jea vorvim dogaim bhitorli soirigot tannunk pavli.Hachi tiddok ievn tannem thoddea Nairank ani solla nustekarank (mukkuva) aplea sangata bollan vhele.[19] Toruipunn, da Gamacho armar ievjilolea poros iesiesvi zavnk pavlo zantunt tannem mhal haddlo zachem mol armarachea khorcha von satth pavtti vhodd zavn aslem.

Portonnem[बदल]

Vasco da Gaman Calicut 29 Agost 1498 vorsa soddlem.Ghora vochpache umedin, tannem thollavi zannvai monsoonachea vareachi durlokx keli jem ozun doreadeger martalem.Armar survatek ut’tore dixen Bharoti doreadeger tannddttali ani uprant vixranti ghevche khatir Anjediva zunvear nangraili. Xevttim te Bharoti Somdira velean gele zo tannim 3 Outubrant 14 vorsa uplo. Punn hinvalleacho monsoon ozun ievpacho aslo, ani viaj ek kollvolleachi zavnk pavli. Viaj martana, hunalleachea monsoon vareak fuddo korun, da Gamacho armar Bharoti Somdir fokot 23 disamni uplo, ani atam portonneachea viajen, varea virudh viaj martana tankam132 dis lagle.

Da Gaman zomin fokot 2 Janerak 1499 polloili,jen’na to doreadegechea Somali xarantlea Mogadishu hachea pasar zatalo, ten’na tem Ajuran Samraja khal Horn of Africant aslem.Armar thambunk na, punn Mogadishu pasar zavche poilim, hea iatrecho ninami dispott’tti borovpi hannem tem ek vhodd xar zantunt ghoram char vo panch mallianchim unch aslim ani vhodd rajmoholam tanchea modekat ani sabar mosjidam zankam lamb vattkuleo gumtteo asleo; oxi nond kelea.[20]

Da Gamacho armar xevttim Malindi , eka bhirankull poristhitint 7 Janer 1499 pavlo – sumar orde monis viaj kortana tantuntle somplole ani herank rogtachea sravacho rog zalolo. Tin bottincho poramus korunk favo te monis na zavn, da Gaman São Rafaelak Udent Afrikechea doreadeger udkant buddoili ani tarvavelea monxank don urlolea bottint São Gabriel ani Berrio. vanttpant aile.  Tea uprant, viaj sullsullit zavnk pavli. Survatechea Marsant, te Mossel Bay pavle, ani Cape of Good Hope urfattea dixen 20 Marsak uplo,ani ostompt Afriki doreadeger 25 Abrilak pavle.

Iatrehi nondnni avchit hanga sompta. Dusrea zhorintlean portun ektthaim korun, oxem vachunk melltta ki te Cape Verde poreant pavle, zoim Nicolau Coelhocho Berrio  Vasco da Gamachea São Gabriel haka vegllo zalo ani ekttoch viaj marunk laglo.[21]  Berrio  Lisboak 10 Julh 1499 pavlo ani Nicolau Coelho hannem khaxa hi khobor Raza Manuel I ani rajeacho dorbar Sintra zomo zalo. Itlea modekat, Cape Verde porto pavun, da Gamacho bhav, Paulo da Gama chodd duent zalo. Da Gama tachea sangata Santiago zunvear ravpak kobul zalo ani tannem São Gabriel João de Sák hora vhorpak aplea gumosta suvadin kelem. São Gabriel, Sá-chea khala, Lisboak uprant sumar uxirachea Juhant vo survatechea Augustant pavlo. Da Gama ani tacho duent bhav hannim eka Guinea caravelant provas korun Purtugalak portole, punn Paulo da Gama vatter somplo. Da Gama, Azores denvlo aplea bhavak São FranciscoAngra do Heroismo hangasor purunk , ani thoddo kall dukh korpak thoimsor ravlo. Uprant to eka Azorean caravelan bosun xevttim Lisboak 29 Agost 1499 (Barrosa pormonnem) pavlo,[22] vo survatechea Setembrant (8ver vo 18ver, her zhorim pormonnem). Oxea chintent gul’l astanaim, da Gama haka eka porakromi ievkar dilo ani bhovmanan taka bhorlo zantunt ek zoitivont mirvonnuk ani bhousachea porbamcho somavex aslo. Raza Manuel hannem don chitti boroileant, Julh ani Agost 1499,bottinchea portonnea uprant jeo da Gamachea poile viajechi khobor ditat. Girolamo Sernigi hanneim tannim iatra sompoilea uprant da Gamachea poilea viaje vixim boroilam.

Bhaileo ani portonneache viaji Purtugez Bharotacheo (Carreira da Índia). Dokxinn Atlantikachea vosont rutucho marg zo Bartolomeu Dias hannem 1487vorsa sod lailo, zacho pattlav ani sodprovas da Gaman ugtea doreant kelo tacho vikas uprantlea vorsamni zavpacho aslo.

Iatrek boroch khorch ailo – ek bott ani orde monis xenddpant aile. Calicuta kodden ek vepari koblat korpachea jivonkariantui opies ailolem. Tori legit, mosalo zo urlolea don bottimni haddlolo to prochondd faideak, rajeak vikpant ailo. Vasco da Gama hacho favo to sotkar ek nitt Asiak vochpachea doreamarga khatir korpant ailo.Tache vattecho pattlav uprant dor Purtugez Bharotachea noudolant kelo.

Purtugez rajeachea bhanddarak ek mukhel aspot mosaleacho vepar zavnk pavlo ani her porinnamacho uprant pattlav zalo.Dekhik: da Gama-chea viajen ek spoxtt kelolem ki Afrikechi udent doreadeg Contra Costa, Purtugez hitsombonda khatir mhotvachi zavn asli; tanchim bondram tajem udok purvonn kortalem, her purvonni, lakudd ani durusti korpak bondram ani sabar tarvank ek asro zoim tim vaitt hovamanak lagun ravunk zatalim. Ek mhotvacho porinnnam Purtugez razvottkek  Mozambiquechi vosahot korunk pavlem.

Inama[बदल]

Vasco da Gama-chi soi (Ho Comde Almirante, "Nousenadhipoti Count" vachpak melltta)

Dezembr 1499, Raza  Portugalacho Manuel I hannem Vasco da Gama haka Sines ganv inam koso bhettoilo ek vonxachem daiz koxem (tachea bapain, Estêvão, hannem ek favtt commenda koxem aslem). Hem ek gusponnechea zavnk pavlem, kiteak Sinesachi malki ozun Order of Santiago hachi asli. Order-achea voddilan, Jorge de Lencastre, hannem ghoddiek inam pas kela astolo –xevttim, da Gama ek Santiago sordar, ek tanchoch, ani ek chodd lagxilo bhagidar Lencastre hacho aslo.Punn Sinesak razan inam dila dekhun Lencastre-ak khubllavnk pavlo tem totvak lagun nakarunk, kiteak tem ghoddiek razak odik Order-achim bhattam dan korunk ut’tejon divnk pavtolem.[23] Da Gama fuddlim kaim vorsam Sinesak tabeant ghevnk sarchim poddtta aslim, ek proiotn zo taka Lencastre sovem poisavunk pavta astolo ani xevttim da Gama-n, Order of Christ hachea vixim vochun Order of Santiago 1507 vorsa soddun divpak poddlem.

Itlea modekat,.da Gama haka vonxakullachem rajeo bospagar 300,000 reis favo zalem. Taka, tachea bhavonddank ani fuddle pillgek kullvont kitab Dom (somi) sodankal favo zalo. 30 Janerak 1502, da Gama haka Almirante dos mares de Arabia, Persia, India e de todo o Oriente ("Orob, Persia ani Akh’khea udenticho Nousenadhipoti") – ho kitab favo zalo zo ek sozoilolo ugddasacho Castilian kitab zo Christopher Columbus (spoxttponni, zor Manuelak dila tor Castile hacho 'Somdirachea doreacho Nousenadhipoti',dila tor khatren Purtugalan sud’dham ek divnk zai) doxoilolo divpant ailo.[24] Anik ek Outubr 1501 tarkhechi rajiachi chitt, hannem da Gamak modem poddunk svotacho hok dilo ani ek nischit bhumika khoinchea fuddle Bharotant vochpi iatrecher korunk dilo. 

1501 hachea sumarak, Vasco da Gama hannem Catarina de Ataíde, Álvaro de Ataídechi dhuv, Alvorachea  (Algarve) alcaide-mór  hiche kodden kazar zoddlem, ani ek famad kullvont natem bollvont Almeida kuttumba kodden zoddlem (Catarina D. Francisco de Almeida)hachi bapulbhoinn asli.[25]

Dusri viaj[बदल]

Bharotachi Malabar Doreadeg, c. 1500, Vasco da Gamachi vatt 4tea Bharoti armarachi 1502 vorsantli dakhoita

Pattlav korpi iatra, Dusri Bharotachi Armar,ji 1500 vorsa Pedro Álvares Cabral hachea fuddariponna khal ek koblati vorvim   Calicucho Zamorin  ani ek Purtugez karkhano xarant sthaplo..Punn, Pedro Cabral thollavea Orbi vepari sonstham kodden eka kijilant poddlo, zacho porinnam karkhano eka marmarint sampoddlo ani sumar 70 Purtugez tantunt morunk pavle. Cabral hannem Zamorinacher tea ghoddnne bodol boglantt ghatlem ani xaracher bomb ghatle. Hea vorvim Purtugal ani Calicuta modem zhuz zavnk pavlem. 

Vasco da Gaman gharannem ghatlea tachea rajeachea chittint 4tea Bharoti Armar hachem fuddarponn aplea hatant ghevnk, jem 1502 korpak tharailem, Zamorinacher sudd ghetolo mhonn spoxtt korun ani Purtugezachea otti manun ghevnk taka boll korunk. Zobordost xoxostr armar pondra bottinchi asun oixim monis Lisboak savn 12 Fevrer 1502 bhair sorli.Tachea fattlean Abrilant anik ek panch bottinchi tukddi tachea bapul bhav, Estêvão da Gama (Aires da Gamacho put), hachea fuddariponna khal bhair sorli ji tankam Bharoti Mhasagorant bhettli. 4to armar ek da Gama kuttumbacho zavn aslo. Tache don mama, Vicente Sodré ani Brás Sodré, hankam adinch Bharoti Mhasagorantle noudolachi rakhnni korunk fuddari koxen nemlole, ani mevnneank Álvaro de Ataíde (Vascochi bail Catarinacho bhav) ani Lopo Mendes de Vasconcelos (Vascochea bhoinn Teresa da Gama cho ghov) hannim mukhel armarichea bottinchem kopitponn choloilem.

Bhair sorpi viajent, da Gamachea armaran Udent Afriki bhangra vepar korpi bondr Sofala hache kodden sompork kelo ani Kilwatochea Sultanacho odhikar hachim, ek borench xem bhangar ghevn argam unnem kelim. Bharotant, Outubr 1502, da Gamacho armar khoinchea Orbi bottik tabeant ghetali jeo Bharoti udkant provas kortaleo chodd noxtti asli Miri, ek tirthiatrechi bott Meccachi zache provaxeank tannem ugtea udkant kot’tol kele.[26] Uprant to Calicut pavlo, zoim Cabralachea ilaza khatir magnni keli. Zorui Zamorin eke nove koblaticher soi korunk toiar aslo, [27] da Gaman Hindu razak ek ulo kelo sogllea Musolmanak Calicutantle dhanvddavnk vattagoti korche adim, ji magnni nakarpant aili. Purtugez armarin uprant xaracher doreadeger ravun bollixtt korunk naslolea xaracher don dis bomb ghatle.Tannem zaiteoch tandllacheo botti tabeant ghetleo, bottintlea lokanche hat ani nakam katorlim ani eka opmanachi chitt Zamorinak patthoili.[28]

da Gamachea armaricho ek dekhavo (Livro das Armadas pustoka velean)
Ek piraien vaddlolo, Bharotacho Rajiodhikari ani Vidigueiracho Count ( Lisuarte de Abreu pustoka velean)
Kochintli.St. Francis CSI Igorz,  Vasco da Gama Kochint 1524 somplo jen’na to Bharotache tisre bhetter ailolo.Tachi kudd poilim hea Igorjent nikipiloli.

da Gaman kelolea hinvsecho prokar Bharotachea  Malabar Doreadeger, zacher Calicut ovlumbun aslem, taka khondd poddlo. Punn Zamorinan koslech Purtugezachea ottink man dina zalo, ani tannem da Gamachea armarak avhan divnk ek mozbut zhuzabottincho armar bhaddean pasun kelo (jem da Gama Calicut bondra samkar eka noudolachea zhuzant harovnk pavlo). Da Gaman Cochin  ani Cannanore hanga mosale bhorle, dhaktteo lagsorleo razvotteo, orde-vassal ani thodde Zamorina kodde orde zhuzant, zancheo iuti surokxit keloleo adlea Purtugez armaramni 4to armar Bharotantlo survatechea 1503 bhair sorlo. Da Gama fattim caravelsanchi ek dhaktti tukdi tachea tivachea ,Vicente Sodré, fuddariponna khal Bharoti doreadegecher Calicut bottink sotavunk, ani Purtugez karkhane Cochinantle ani Cannanore che surokxit dovrunk Zamorinchea oporiaiachea bodlea pasun paro korunk dovorli.

Vasco da Gama, aplea misanvant Zamorinak suvadin korpant purnnponni opies ievun Setembr 1503 Purtugalak portolo.Hem opies ani uprant anikui opies tachea tiv Vicente Sodré hachem Cochincho karkhano surokxik na korpant, hem sogllem fuddle inama virudh gelem.Jen’na Purtugez Razak Purtugalacho ManuelI poilo Purtugez Bharotacho rajiopal ani rajiodhikari nempachi palli 1505 vorsa aili, da Gamak zannovta oslem durlokx korpant ailem ani ti zutti Francisco de Almeidak divpant aili.

Tirthiatrechea bottichi ghoddnni[बदल]

Tache dusre viajint, Vasco da Gaman nixttur ghoddneo spordha korpi vepareancher ani thollavea ravpeancher keleo, zachi tachi Bharotant fank toddun pavli.[29][30] Calicutchea dusrea viaje vellar, da Gaman ek Musolmanachea tirthiatrek vochpi botti addaili Madayi ji Calicut savn Mecca vetali. Protioxant govai divpi Thomé Lopes ani zontrekar Gaspar Correia bariksann dita tea pormonnem, da Gaman 400 tirthkaranchi bott zantunt 50 ostoreo asleo ti luttli, provaxeank bond kele, ani malok ani ek Egyptachea rajdutak jive hulpaile. Tannim apli doulot, ji " Fezchea rajvottkent sogllea Kristi gulamanchi khonddnni ani borench zaitem korta asli” punn torui tankam soddunk nant. Ostoreo aplem bhangar ani rotna ghevn aplea lhan ballank ghott dhorun churchure kor mhonn magun ietaleo tem Da Gaman burakantean pollelem.'[31] 

Calicutantlea Musolmanank dhanvddavn Hindu Zamorina kodde vochunk magnnem kortoch, nimannean vhoddlea bhottak Talappana Namboothiri haka (toch monis zannem da Gamak Zamorinache kuddint patthoilo tache chodd sotkar korpi poilea Calicutche bhetter Mai 1498 vorsa) ulovpam korunk patthoilo. Da Gaman taka gupt her pacharlo, ani tea bhottache vontth ani kan katorpak hukum dilo ani sunneache kan tache toklek xivun taka patthoilo. [29] 

Modlo Kall[बदल]

Don fudllim doskam, Vasco da Gama ek xant jivit jielo, taka rajdorbarant ievkar naslo ani Bharoti ghoddnnuka vixim taka pois dovorlolo.Tache proiotn ManuelI hache kodden boro asunk (zantunt Order of Christ kodden 1507 vorsa vochpacho somavex asa), kainch korunk pavunk na.. Almeida, ani khoddegant Afonso de Albuquerque ani uprant Albergaria ani Sequeira he razache posontiche monis Bharota khatir asle.

 Ferdinand Magellan hannem Castileche Razvottkek  1518 vorsa haroilea uprant, Vasco da Gaman toxem korunk dhomki dili, jem razak taka Purtugalant dovrunk ani aplo khas "Indiescho Nousenadhipoti" Espanhak tallche khatir pavlam marchim poddlim.[32]  1519 vorsa, magnneacher durlokx kelea uprant. Raza Manuel I hannem xevttim Vasco da Gama haka ek samontxaicho kitab divnk taktik keli, ani taka poilo  Vidigueiracho Count nemlo, ek Countacho kitab zo rajeache hukumen Evorant kaddpant ailo 29 Dezembrant, eka gusponnechea koblatent Jaime, Duke of Braganza hachea kodden, ganv Vidigueira ani Vila dos Frades farik kelea uprant zannem odhikar soddle. Hea hukuman Vasco da Gama ani tachea daizank sogllo mhosul ani sombondit faide divpant aile,[33] jea vorvim da Gamank poilo Purtugez Count koso kelo zorui to rajeachea vonxantlo naslo.[34]

Tisri viaj ani moronn[बदल]

Gamacho adlo fondd  St. Francis Igorjent, Kochi
St Francisache Igorjent fondda lagsor kantoiloli nanvanchi patti

1521 chea usram Raza Manuel I chea mornna uprant, tacho put ani herderi, Raza PurtugalachoJohn III ,Purtugez sorkarache doreapoltoddche bhag niall korpak laglo. Adlea Albuquerque choukoddi koddlean koddsoron (atam Diogo Lopes de Sequeira kelolem protinidhiponn), John III ek taji survat korunk sodi. Vasco da Gama aplea rajki vonvasantlo ek mhotvacho sol’lagar koso novea razachea nemnnukank ani hikmotink portun upzolo.Novea Espanishachem sonkott Maluku Zunvea vixim pollovn apli poilitai koxi, Vasco da Gaman Orbi virudh nad soddunk sol’lo dilo zo Manueline kallant aslo, ani to ek sot’techi kallji Duarte de Menezes hachi chalu aslo,zo ten’nacho- Purtugez Bharatacho rajiopal aslo. Menezesui okuxoll ani bhroxtt utorlo, ani tachea vixim sabar kagalli aileo. Hea vorvim, John III hannem, tachea nanvancho jadu ani tachea kortubancho ugddas ghoddiek Purtugez Bharotachea odhikareak chhap marunk pavot and ek novea sorkarak ani nove ievzonnen bodol zavnk pavtolo mhonn khatri asun Vasco da Gamak tachea zagear ghalunk nirnnoi ghetlo..

Tachea nemnnukeche chittint Fevrer 1524, John III hannem Vasco da Gamak khaxelo kitab "Rajiodhikari" dilo,zo dusro Purtugez rajiopal duxoitalo (poilo kitab mellovpi Francisco de Almeida  1505 vorsa aslo).[35] Tachea dusrea putak, Estêvão da Gama haka teach vellar Capitão-mor do Mar da Índia ('Bharoti doreacho vhodd- dolpoti ',Bharoti Somdirachea noudol paro korpi armaracho Senapoti) Duarte-achea bhavachea Luís de Menezes bodlek neml,. Eke nimanne ottin, Gaman Portugalachea John III koddlean aplea sogllea putank vollin Malacca-che kopit korunk ek vaido ghetlo.

Abril 1524 vorsa, chouda bottincho armar ghevn bhair sorun, Vasco da Gaman aplea dolpoti sangatak asun, bott famad vhodd carrack Santa Catarina do Monte Sinai  aplea don putam sangata, Estêvão ani Paulo Bharotachea nimannea viajik vheli. Ek trasanchea viajen (char vo panch botti vatter xenddleo), to Bharotant Seembrant pavlo. Vasco da Gaman aple unchlea somrattachea hukumen ek novo hukum Purtugez Bharotak porgott kelo zantunt sogllea adlea odhikaream zagear aple khas monxank nemle. Punn Gamank kuddkuddeancho zor thoim pavtoch ailo ani to Cochin xarant, thoim pavchea tin mhoinea uprant Natalanchea adlea disa 1524 somplo. Rajeache suchovnne pormonnem, da Gama uprant Bharotacho rajiopal koso tachea sangata ailea kopitam modleak ekleak ti zutti Henrique de Menezes ( Duarte vixim soirigot na) dili. Da Gamache put Estêvão ani Paulo hankam tancheo zuttio na zaleo ani te porot ietolea armarint survatechea 1525 portole (kaddun uddoilolea Duarte de Menezes ani Luís de Menezes hanchea sangata).[36]

Vasco da Gamachi kudd poili  St. Francis Igorjent,nikipili ji  Fort Kochint  Kochi xarant asa, punn tacheo osti Purtugalant 1539 vorsa vheleo. Vasco da Gamachi kudd Vidigueira eka petulant bhangar ani rotnamni sozovn porot nikipili.

Belem, Lisboant Vasco da Gamacho Jerónimos Motthant fondd

Belem hantuntlo Hieronymites Motth zo Purtugez rajeaxaichea Aviz achi ximiter zanvcho aslo, ti survatechea 1500 ji Vasco da Gamachea poili viaj bhair sorli thoim lagsor asa ubarpant aili, ani tichi bandavollik duddu ek Purtugez Bharotantlea armarichea faideacher kor ghalun korpant aili. 1880 vorsa , da Gamacheo osti ani toxench kovi Luís de Camões (zannem da Gamachea poile viajechem sozovp aplea 1572 vorsantlea kovitent, The Lusiad hantunt kelam), hacheo osti novea kantoilolea fonddar motthachea Igorjechea gabharant, raza Manuel I ani John III thodde metr pois, hanchea fonddam savn halovpant aileo, zachi tannem seva keloli.

Kazar ani bhurgim[बदल]

Vasco da Gama ani tache ghorkan’nik, Catarina de Ataíde, hankam so put ani ek dhuv asli:[37]

  1. Dom Francisco da Gama, zannem Vidigueiracho 2ro Count  ani 2ro "Bharoti Orbi ani Farsi Doriancho Novsenadhipoti," aplea bapaiche kitabanchem herderponn ghetlem. To Purtugalant ravlo. 
  2. Dom Estevão da Gama, ek nirfoll proiotnant 1524 vorsachea kallant Bharoti paro korpi dolpoti koso, taka tin vorsanchea kallak Malaccacho Dolpoti nempant ailo ani tannem, 1534 tem 1539 seva keli (zantunt tachea bhav Pauluchea kallacho don vorsancho kall somavex asa. Tea uprant taka  Bharotacho 11vo Rajiopal 1540 tem 1542 poriant nemlo. 
  3. Dom Paulo da Gama, Malaccacho dolpoti 1533–34, haka Malacca lagim eka noudol kariant marpant ailo. 
  4. Dom Cristovão da Gama, Malaccachea armaricho dolpoti 1538 tem 1540; haka Malaccant pod ghevpak nemlo, punn taka  Ahmad ibn Ibrahim hannem  Ethiopian-Adal zhuzant  1542 vorsa marlo. 
  5. Dom Pedro da Silva da Gama, Malaccacho dolpoti 1548 tem 1552 nemlo. 
  6. Dom Álvaro d'Ataide da Gama Malaccachea armaracho kopit 1540 nemlo, Malaccacho dolpoti 1552 tem 1554 aslo.
  7. Dona Isabel d'Ataide da Gama, ekuch dhuv, ti Ignacio de Noronha kodden kazar zali,zo poilea  Linharesachea Cointacho put aslo.

Tacho dadleacho vonx 1747 vorsa sompunk pavlo, zorui kitab ostoreanchea vollint gelo.सांचो:What?

Kitab, prokar ani bhovman[बदल]

Purtugez razvottkechi seva sabar vorsam korun, da Gamak zaite inam veglle kitab, protixtta ani sorkari khatim divpant ailim:

  • Orbi,Persia, Bharot Doreanche ani sorv Udenticho Nousenadhipoti –Purtugez Bharotantlea Armaricho mukhel koso kitab (Admiral of the Seas of Arabia, Persia, India and all the Orient – Title as chief of the Portuguese India Armadas)
  • Bharotacho 2roi Rajiodhikari – Purtugez Bharotantlo vosnnukecho mukheli (2nd Viceroy of India – Title of office as colonial head of Portuguese India)
  • Vidigueiracho 1lo Count –Purtuguese kullvonticho kitab (1st Count of Vidigueira – Title of Portuguese nobility)

Purvoz[बदल]

Daiz[बदल]

António Manuel da Fonseca (1838)hannem kaddlolem Vasco da Gamachem rupchitr 

Vasco da Gama ek chodd famad ani sozoilolo Sodachea kallantlo provassodpi.Henry the Navigator, uprant survatechea vosnnukechea bollacho to Purtugalachea iesak zobabdar. Hachea xivai poili viaj dhorun, tachem rajkaronn ani zhuz dusrea sonvsarachea bazuchem mixronn korop hem Purtugalak eka mukhel zagear pavoilem Bharotachea Doreachea veparant da Gamachi survateche viajicho pattlav korun, Purtugez rajvottken chintlem ki udent Afrikechea doreadeger zage mellovp chodd gorjechem raxttrio veparak poixilea udente khatir chodd gorjechem . Punn, hi tachi fank kaim ghoddnneam ani avosthek lagun zoxem noxttea Tirthiatrechea bottichea ghoddnek lagun adim bhasabhas kelea; dhilavnk pavli.


Purtugez raxttrio mhakavio Luís Vaz de Camões hachem  Lusíadas , hache chodd vixoi Vasco da Gamachea viajiche asat.[38]

1865 vorsantlo vhodd songitika L'Africaine: Opéra en Cinq Actes, zacho ghoddpi Giacomo Meyerbeer asa jem Eugène Scribe hachem songitachem borovp asa, tem mukhelponni Vasco da Gama hachem patr somavex korta. Ghoddnneachem dakhovp, zorui kolponik zavn asa, Meyerbeer hachea songitikecho mathallo Vasco da Gama aslo. 1989 vorsantlea prostuti songitechi San Francisco Songitikechii hantunt famad tenor Plácido Domingo  da Gamachea patrant aslo.[39]  19vea-xekddeacho rochpi Louis-Albert Bourgault-Ducoudray hannem ek nanv divpi songitika 1872 vorsa da Gamachea jivitacher ani doreachea porakromacher adarit asli

Goeantlea Vasco da Gamachea bondrachea xarak tachem nanv dilam zoxe porim Chondracher ek Vasco da Gama vattkullo fondd asa,Brazilant ( Club de Regatas Vasco da Gama hacho somavex korun) tin futtbol ekvott ani Vasco Sports Club  Goeant asat zankam tachem nanv divpant ailam.Ek Igorz Kerollache Kochint asa, Kerollant Vasco da Gama Igorz, ani ek khasgi imarot Saint Helena zunvear asa.Cape Townantlem Vasco upnogor taka bhovman dita. 

Santa Engrácia Igorjent Vasco da Gamak mornnachi iadostika 

Thoddea zageank Lisboachea  Parque das Nações tankam sodprovasachem nanv dilam zoxe porim Vasco da Gama Pul, Vasco da Gama Gumtti ani Centro Comercial Vasco da Gama vepareacho kendr.[40]  Oceanário  Parque das Nações hantuntlea ek taviz eka veongchitr buddi marpeachem asa zachem nanv "Vasco" asa zaka hea sodprovas korpeachem nanv dilam,[41]

Vasco da Gama ekttoch sodprovai xevttachea Os Grandes Portugueses poolant aslo. Zorui xevttache vollerint her Age of Discovery sombondit lok asle, te khoreponni kosleach karonnank sodprovas korpi nhoi mhonn tarvotti asle.

Purtugez Noudol hachea zhuzabottinchea vorgank tachem nanv asa. Ekunn tin Vasco da Gama vorgacheo zhuza botti asat, zantuntli poilek tachem nanv dilam.

Dokxinn Afriki songitkar Hugh Masekela hannem ek vosnnukvada addt kantar mudrailam zachem nanv "Vosnnukvadi Monis", zantun kaveachi utram "Vasco da Gama mhozo ixtt naslo", ani anik ek kantar zachem nanv "Vasco da Gama (Tarvotti Monis)". Donui kantarancho somavex tachea 1976 album Colonial Man.ant somavex kela.

Vasco da Gamak eka Bharoti film Urumint ek virodhok koso dakhoila. Filmachem digdorxon, Santosh Sivan kelam ani tantunt eka Bharoteachem opiesachem da Gamak faran marop dakhoilam, Mars 2016, pornavollxasti je  Oman doreadeger vavurtale tankam ek buddloli bott sampoddli ji Esmeralda da Gamachea 1502–1503 armarantli oxem somzotat. Buddpache survatecho sod 1998 vorsa laglolo. Uprant udkapondchea khonddop, 2013 ani 2015 modem zalem Oman Ministry of Heritage and Culture ani Bluewater Recoveries Ltd. Hanche eka bhagidari vorvim, ek buddlolea bottinchi mellovn ghevpachi komponi, bottichi vollokh, hostikola vorvim zoxe porim ek"Purtugez nanno zo Bharota kodden vepar korpeak mudrailolo ‘(dona modlo ek nanno protiokxant asa oxem somzotat) ani fattrache tofantlean soddlole dhatu kantoilole zacher Vincente Sodré, da Gamachea mavxebhav ani  Esmeraldachea Senapoticheo lhan soi asa."[42]

Henvui polloi[बदल]

  • Chronology of European exploration of Asia / Evropi lokachea Asiachea sodprovasachi Zontri
  • Count of Vidigueira / Vidigueiracho Count
  • Portuguese India Armadas / Purtugez Bharotacheo Armari
  • Portuguese India / Purtugez Bharot
  • Spice trade / Mosaleacho vepar
  • Urumi, a film which portrays Vasco da Gama / Urumi, ek film jem Vasco da Gamak vornnon korta

Sondorb[बदल]

Tipnneo
  1. Diffie, Bailey W. and George D. Winius, Foundations of the Portuguese Empire, 1415–1580, p. 176
  2. Nigel, Cliff (September 2011). Holy War: How Vasco da Gama's Epic Voyages Turned the Tide in a Centuries-Old Clash of Civilizations. Harper.सांचो:Page number.
  3. "Shipwreck Discovered from Explorer Vasco da Gama's Fleet". 2016-03-14. Retrieved 2017-12-10.
  4. Modern History Sourcebook: Vasco da Gama: Round Africa to India, 1497–1498 CE, fordham.edu, Retrieved 27 June 2007.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Ames, Glenn J. (2008). The Globe Encompassed. p. 27. ISBN 0-13-193388-4..
  6. The Sodrés were said to have been descended from Frederick Sudley, of Gloucestershire, who accompanied the Earl of Cambridge to Portugal in 1381, and subsequently settled there (Subrahmanyam, 1997, p. 61).
  7. Subrahmanyam, 1997, p. 61.
  8. Subrahmanyam, 1997, p. 62.
  9. Subrahmanyam, 1997, pp. 60–61.
  10. Subrahmanyam, 1997, p. 63.
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 Diffie, Bailey W.; Winius, George D. (1977). Foundations of the Portuguese Empire, 1415–1850. Europe and the World in the Age of Expansion. 1. p. 177. ISBN 978-0-8166-0850-8.
  12. Da Gama's Round Africa to India, fordham.edu Retrieved 16 November 2006.
  13. Gago Coutinho, C.V. (1951–52) A Nautica dos Descobrimentos: os descobrimentos maritimos visitos por um navegador, Lisbon: Agencia Geral do Ultramar; pp. 319–363; Axelson, E. (1988) "The Dias Voyage, 1487–1488: toponymy and padrões", Revista da Universidade de Coimbra, Vol. 34, pp. 29–55 offprint; Waters, D.W. (1988) "Reflections Upon Some Navigational and Hydrographic Problems of the XVth Century Related to the voyage of Bartolomeu Dias", Revista da Universidade de Coimbra, Vol. 34, pp. 275–347. offprint.
  14. Fernandez-Armesto, Felipe (2006). Pathfinders: A Global History of Exploration. W. W. Norton & Company. pp. 177–178. ISBN 0-393-06259-7.
  15. "Vasco da Gamma Seeks Sea Route to India" सांचो:Webarchive, Old News Publishing, Retrieved 8 July 2006.
  16. Fernandez-Armesto, Felipe (2006). Pathfinders: A Global History of Exploration. W. W. Norton & Company. pp. 178–179. ISBN 0-393-06259-7.
  17. Ames, Glenn J. (2005). Vasco da Gama: Renaissance Crusader. New York: Pearson/Longman. p. 50.
  18. Castaneda, Herman Lopes de, The First Book of the Historie of the Discoveries and Conquests of the East India by the Portingals, London, 1582, in Kerr, Robert (ed.) A General History and Collection of Voyages and Travels Vol. II, London, 1811.
  19. M.G.S. Narayanan, Calicut: The City of Truth (2006) Calicut University Publications (The incident is mentioned by Camoes in The Lusiads, wherein it is stated that the Zamorin "showed no signs of treachery" and that "on the other hand, da Gama's conduct in carrying off the five men he had entrapped on board his ships is indefensible.").
  20. Da Gama's First Voyage p. 88.
  21. Subrahmanyam, 1997, p. 149.
  22. João de Barros, Da Asia, Dec. I, Lib. IV, c. 11, p. 370.
  23. Subrahmanyam, 1997, p. 168.
  24. João de Barros (1552, pp. 23–24) dates this appointment in January 1502, just before da Gama's departure on his second voyage. But Subrahmanyan (1997, p. 169), following Braancamp Freire, conjectures this award may have been made as early as January 1500.
  25. Catarina de Ataíde's mother, Maria da Silva, was the sister of Beatriz da Silva, mother of Francisco de Almeida. The Almeidas provided a substantial part of Catarina's dowry (Subrahmanyan, 1997, p. 174).
Zhori

(reissued by Cambridge University Press, 2010. सांचो:ISBNISBNसांचो:ISBN978-1-108-01296-6)

  • Russell-Wood, A. J. R. (1993). A World on the Move: The Portuguese in Africa, Asia, and America, 1415–1808. Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-312-09427-0.
  • Subrahmanyam, Sanjay (1997). The Career and Legend of Vasco da Gama. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-47072-8.
  • Teixeira de Aragão, A.C. (1887) Vasco da Gama e a Vidigueira: um estudo historico. Lisbon: Sociedade de Geografia de Lisboa online
  • Towle, George Makepeace (c. 1878). Vasco da Gama, his voyages and adventures. Boston: Lothrop, Lee & Shepard.

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Preceded by
Duarte de Menezes
Governor of Portuguese India
September−December 1524
Succeeded by
Henrique de Menezes, Lopo Vaz de Sampaio
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