Gõychi Mukti Chollvoll

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Gõychi Mukti Chollvoll Bharotantlea Gõychi Purtugez rajvott sompovnk ek chollvoll asli. He chollvollichem ghoddop lhan promannachem bondd ani utthav ekunnisvea xekddeantlo aslem, ani 1940-1961 vorsam modem ti chodd bollixtt zali. Hi chollvoll donui Goeam bhitor ani bhair ghoddpant aili ani tantunt vegvegllea prokarchea rochnnukechem khaxeleponn aslem zantunt ovhinseche nixedh, bonddache prokar ani cholakheche proiotn asle.[1][2] Punn, Bharotichea vosnnukancho fokot 1961 vorsa jen’na Bharotant Goencher ghuri ghatli ten’na Purtugezancho tabo somplo[3] ani he zage Bharoti Songhrajeant zoddle.

Bharotant Purtugez vosnnuko[बदल]

1510 vorsa Purtugezan Bharotant vosnnuko ani zaitech ostomptechea doreadegeche zage tabeant ghevn zaiteoch vosnnuko udentik sthapleo. 19vo xekddo somptana, Purtugezacheo vosnnuko Bharotant Goem, Damanv ani Diu, Dadra ani Nagar Haveli ani Anjediva zunvo meren ximit asleo.

Purtugez rajvottkecher bondd[बदल]

Zaitech Goenkar je Purtugezanche rajvottkent jietale tannim Purtugez rajvott nakarli kiteak tanchim dhoronna chodd nirdoi aslim ani tanche hukum ani doia nasloleo sorkari mohimo nanvadik Hindu Goenkarank Kristanvponnant dhormantor korunk asleo.[4] Purtugez rajvottkecher add (nimannem 1912 vorsa kelolem) 14 bonddam,[5] vosnnukechea kallachi rajvott sompovnk ekui utthav iesvont zavnk na. Hea utthavachea upiesan orthadik bodol haddunk pavunk na ani tanchi vixal, kriaxil palov divpi manddavoll ani thollavea soimachim karonna aslim.

Svotontraiechi chollvoll[बदल]

18vo xekddo[बदल]

Purtugezam virud'dh 1787 ant Goenkar Pintonchem Karosthan yotn kelea.

Survatecho 20vo xekddo[बदल]

1910 vorsa Purtugez somratt raj kaddun uddovpant, tem vosnnukenk svaiototai ditole mhonn somzun ek bhorvonso nirmann kelo, punn jen’na Purtugez vosnnukvadachim dhoronna bodlunk nant, ek manddavollichi ani vosnnukvadachea add orponn keloli chollvoll uprasli.[5] Luís de Menezes Bragança hannem O Heraldo, potr sthaplem, jem Goenchem Purtugez bhaxentlem poilem vortomanpotr aslem, jem Purtugez vosnnukvadachea rajvottke virudh aslem. 1917vorsa, "Carta Organica" kaido pas kelo zantunt Goenchea nagrikanchea sovlotincher nodor dovorpant aili.

Vaddttea motbhedachi protikria koxi, Purtugezachea Goenchea sorkaran oxim dhoronna lagu korpant haddlim zantunt nagrikancheo sovloti katorpant aileo, zantunt potrancher sensuracho aspav aslo. Koddok sensurachea dhoronnant kosleai chhaplolea utrank, zantunt amontronnachim karddancho aspav aslo, tim eka sensurache somitik topasnni korunk divnk zai aslim. Purtugez Goenchea Rajiopalak kosli-i porgottnni sthogit korunk, chhapkhannem bond korunk ani jim vortomanpotrank him dhoronna palli nant tancher khor dondd ghalunk; hukum aslo. Zaitea Goenkaramni hea vortomanpotrachea svotontraiechea kopat korpacher ttika keli, ani ti fokot vosnnuke vordan aslolea mozkurak vortomanpotrank ani nemalleank Purtugez porgottunk porvangi dita; oxem mhonnttlem.[6]

Menezes Bragança hannem ho kaido nakarunk ek Moddganvant ek sobhechi manddavoll keli ani thoddo kall je Purtugezan mukhel vattharant favo zatale tech hok Goenkarank favo zale.[7] Punn, Purtugez Katolk Igorz vosnnuke vordan aslolea dhoronnak palov ditali ani svotontrai virudh chollvoll korunk Goenkar Kristanvancher probhav ghalunk proiotn kortali. Goenchea Katolk Igorjechea Purtugez Patriarkan 60 voir odhikrut chitti dhormprantachea padrink patthoileo, zantunt aplea bhavartheank sermanv sangun ki tanchem salvasanv Purtugezancher ovlumbun asa ani tea khatir sonskrutik-rajki sombond her Bharotam koddlean pois ravunk; oxeo suchovnneo dileo.[8]

1920–1940[बदल]

Tristão de Bragança Cunha 1998 stamp of India.jpg

1928 vorsa, Tristão de Bragança Cunha hannem Goa National Congress sthaplo. Kolkotak zalolea Indian National Congress odhivexonant, Goa Congress Committee-k maniotai ani protitnidhiponn favo zalem.

1930 vorsachea Maiant, Purtugalan "Acto Colonial" (Vosnnukecho Kaido), zantunt rajki sobha ani zomati sogllea Purtugez vosnnukent allo ghalunk pas kelo. Ho kaido lagu korun Goencho bhes eka vosnnukecho korun soddlo. Purtugezan, Bhartachea Purtugez zageancher loskorant bhorti zavnk ek soktichem dhoronn bhitor kaddlem jea vorvim odik vaddtti tiddok vosnnukechea sorkara virudh zavnk pavli.[7]

Purtugez sorkaran National Congress (Goa) hankam maniotai dina zavnk dobav haddlo; punn 1938 vorsa, Mumboichea Goenkaramni tatpurti Goa Congress sthapli.

1940ant[बदल]

1940ant, Goenchea svotontr chollvollik goti aili zachi sfurt Bharoti Svotontraiechi chollvoll zavn asli ji eka chodd mhotvachea kallant aili, tech porim 1946 vorsachi Brittix- anchi Bharotak svotontrai divpachi kollovnni, zachea uprant Bharoti fuddareamni aplem Purtugez Bharotachea ani Fransez Bharotachea chollvollicher lokx voddlem zankam novea svotontr zalolea Bharoti rajeant vilin zavnk zai aslem. Jen’na Bragança Cunha haka 1946, vorsa ottok korpant ailo, Goa Kongresacho odheokx A.G. Tendulkar zalo ani tannem Londa (Goeam bhair) ek zomat ievjili.

Dr Julião Menezes ho Goeant xiklo ani Lyceu, (Purtugez vhodd iskol) sompoitoch tannem 1920 vorsa Berlin Vixvvidheapittant proves ghetlo ani voizponnant MD podvi zoddli. Tannem Berlinant Indology-nt patthiokrom kelo. Thoim taka Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia bhettlo zo teach vixvvidheapittant xiktalo.[9] Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia ani Dr Julião Menezes ekamekachea somporkant ravle ani Dr. Menezes hannem taka asro pasun dilo. ‘Kor vo Mor’ ho Mahatma Gandhi hannem ulo marlea uprant. Dr. Lohia, Goeant lipun ravnk sodtalo punn Dr. Menezes-an taka sol’lo ditoch tannem to vichar soddun dilo kiteak Brittixanche dolal Goeant kriaxil asle dekhun Dr. Menezes haka chinta zatali. Lahore-antlean zoim taka Mumboint ottok kortoch vhorpant ailolo, Dr. Lohiachea bondkhonnintlean suttka zatoch, he dogui portun 1946 vorsa bhettle. Eka voizuki topasnne khatir Mumboint Dr. Lohia, Dr. Menezesak bhettlo zoim nimannean poileak visov ghevnk sanglem ani tannem taka aplea ghora Goeant Osollnnem ievnk amontronn dilem.[9][10] Hem amontronn svikakrun, Dr. Lohia Goeant Junhache 10ver 1946 ailo ani Menezes-achea ghorant Osollnnem ravlo, zoim dogui danddgeamnim Goeant asolea tea vellachea vatavronnacher bhasabhas keli ani Purtugez sorkaran zomatincher bondi ghatlea taka avhan korpak tharailem. Hi 435-vorsanchea Purtugez sorkaracher poili nagrik adneabhong zavn asli. Lohiachea ienneachi khobor Goenkaram modem ximpoddli ani Osollnnechem Dr. Menezesa-chem ghor Goenkar vidvanachea ani rajki kariakortanche zomatichem thikann zavn pavlem zankam Dr.Lohia ani Dr. Menezes hancho sol’lo zai aslo.[10] Junhache 15ver 1946 vorsa, Dr. Menezes and Dr. Lohia hannim Ponnje eka lokachea zomeak bhaxonn dilem punn zorui te zomat aslolea zagear pulis hajir asle, te modem poddun ti zomat bond korunk na. Hea zomatichea zoita vorvim tankam dhilaso mell’llo ani dogaimnim Moddganvchea chovkant eka ghoddeam gaddie vorvim proves kelo.[10] Junhache 18ver hozaramni dadle ani bailamni tankam ievkar dilo ani tanchea nanvan oxim ghoxnna kelim: "Dr Lohia-ki Jai! Dr Julião Menezes-ki-Jai!". Dr. Lohia ani Dr.Menezes hankam ottok korpant aili. Vosnnukechea karbhareanchean, zankam hachi khobor nasli, tanchean zomeacho kollkoll thambovnk zavnk na. Julião ani Lohia hankam ottok keli ani modeanrati Ponnje Pulis kvartelar vhele. Tanchea ottkechi khobor akh’khea Goeant posorli, ani choddxea xaramni lokan aplim nidorxonna kelim. Moddganvant, dusre sokallim, nagrikamni pursanv kaddlem ani sanje Kamra fuddeant ektthaim zale. Zorui foujeche xipai thoim lokank ambddunk asle, te bosun ravle, ani ekvottan aplea vhoddlea tallean akh’khea xarant bobatt martale mhonnnun: Jai Hind!! Dr. Lohiako shodd do! Dr. Julião Menezesko shodd do!

Disachea xevttak, Dr.Julião Menezes haka soddpant ailo ani Dr. Lohia haka Goeam bhair vhorun soddlo. Tanchi ottok, lokak svotontraiechea chollvollik vhodda promannant nidorxonna korunk prernna divnk pavli jea vorvim vhoddlea promannant ottok zali ani 1,500 lokachem bondkhonnint patthovp zalem.[5] Goenche fuddari zoxe porim Bragança Cunha, Purushottam Kakodkar, ani Laxmikant Bhembre hankam tanchea svotontraiechea nidorxonnant bhag ghetla dekhun Purtugalak toddipar kele.[7]

Goem, Damanv ani Divchea sorkarachean Dr. Juliãochem hea tachea iogdanak to jivo astana maniotai divnk ghoddunk na, zorui taka Junhache 18 ver 1986 vorsa tachea mornna uprant man favo kelo, taka ek iadostik bandun tacho ugddas dovorpachi goroz asa.[9]

Outubr tem Novembr 1946, zaitech soteagrah (ohinvseche nagrik adneabhongachi kruti) Goeant ghetleo; punn hea krutichea zaiteach fuddareank ottok korpant aile. Fuddareanchea ottkent, hea chollvollichi goti xenddpant aili ani hea uprant, Goa Congress, Mumboi savn aplem kario korpak lagli.

Modlea 1940nt, zaitech nove rajki pokx Goeant, dor ekak ek ghusponnichi kariavoll ani kario asun, Goenchea svotontraiecher ani svaiototaicher zhuzpak; upzole. He rajki pokx vegvegllea dhoronnacho prochar kortale zantunt Goenchem Mharaxttr rajeant vilin korpachoi prostav aslo toxench. Goenchem Bharotant aslolea dokxinn Kornatokachea rajeant vilin korop, svotontr Goenchem ghottok rajeo, ani Purtugez rajeant svaiototai hancho aspav aslo.

Mahatma Gandhi hannim oslea vegllea kariavollichi svotontrai upegachi zavnchi na ani tem svotontraiechea loddaik faideachem zavnchem na mhonn vollkholem; veg vegllea svontontraiechea ghottokamni vixal pokxan ektthaim ievnk proiotn korunk zai, oxi tannem suchovnni keli. Gandhichea suchovnnek zobab koso, vegveglle pokx Mumboint 1947 vorsantle Junhant bhettle ani upcharikponni Purtugezamni “Bharot soddunk” ek mohim sador keli. Brittixamni vosnnukecho tabo soddttoch, Goenchea fuddareank, Purtugez, vosnnukecho tabo sompeponni soddttole, oxem somzotale. Punn Agostache 3rer 1947 vorsa Goenchem svotontrponn Bharotachea svotontraie sangata zavnchem na ani hea khatir Goenkaramni apli loddai chalu dovorchi poddttoli nhoich nagrik sovlote khatir punn “svotache svotontraiek” oxem Dr.Lohian porgottlem.

Raxttrio svotontraiechea loddaient Goeank svotontrai mellpak opies ievop zachea sangata novea raxttrio Nove Delhint aslole Bharoti fudarponnachea mixreo ixare, ani koddok Purtugezancho chholl; Goenchea svotontrponnache chollvollint mondi haddunk pavlo. Tech porim Bharotachi fallnni ani Bharoti Pakistani 1947 vorsantlem zhuz hannim raxttrio Bharoti fuddareancho kendr Purtugezanchea ani Fransezache vosnnuke add loddai dusrea vordan halovpant aili.

Bharotachi svotontrai zatoch, Goem, Damanv ani Divchea svotrontraiechi ek veglli magnni Dr. Froilano de Mello hannem ubharli zo ek nanvadik microbiologist ani Purtugez Raxttrio Vidhansobhent khasdar aslo zannem tankam svaiototaiechim rajeam Brittix bhouraxttram asat toxim Purtugez bhouraxttrant korunk maglem.[11]

Svatotaiechi Magnni[बदल]

Goeant ani Purtugalant, kalla pormonnem magnneo Purtugez Bharotant aslolea prodesam khatir korpant aileo. Julhant 1946 vorsa, ek bhouxik zomat ghetli zantunt Estado da India, haka ek ugti svaiototaiechi magnni Salazarchea karbhareank keli. He zomatik José Inácio de Loyola hacho palov aslo ani tannem hi sfurt mellttoch Uday Bhembrechea odheokxponna khal ek somiti keli. He somitek favo to zobab Purtugez rajkarbhaream koddlean mellunk na ani xekim nimanni svaiototaiechi magnni Purushottam Kakodkaran survatechea 1961 vorsa keli.[12]

Choturaieche proiotn[बदल]

1947 vorsachea Dezembrant, svotontr Bharot ani Purtugal hannim dutavasacheo zullovneo sthapleo. 1948 vorsantlea Janerant, Bharoti Prodhan Montri Jawaharlal Nehrun Purtugez dutachi bhett ghetli ani Goenchem, Bharoti songh rajeant vilin korpacho prosn manddlo. Purtugez, zankam e Bharoti vosnnuko moladik asleo, tankam vannponn korpant posonti nasli ani 1948 vorsa Goenchea vosnnuke add chollvoll lagim lagim borkhast korpant aili.

1953 vorsa Janerant, Bharoti Purtugalachem xisttmonddol (Bharot sorkarachi protinidhi sonstha), hannim Purtugala kodde tichea Bharotant aslolea zageam vixim ulovnni korunk magnni keli. Bharot sorkar ek nitt bodlop zai aslem, punn Purtugezan taka nakar dilo ani dutavasachi ixttagot don desa bhitor ibaddot geli. Junhache 11 ver 1953 vorsa, Lisboak aslolo dutavas bond korpant ailo ani dutavasacheo zullovnneo upcharik pod’dhotin kaddun uddoileo. Julh 1953 vorsa Bharotachi sthiti French ani Purtugez vosnnuko Bhartotatleo Bharoti songh Prodesat mellovnk zai; oxem Nehrun sanglem. Nivollponni Bharatichem dhoronn vosnnukamche sombond Nehrun sanglam astana, Purtugal ani Frans apleo vosnnuko soddunk kobul nasle. Hea uprant, Bharotan ek Ekvottit Raxttram-che torfen Purtugezank Bharotantle xantponni soddunk ek mohim sador keli.[5]

Krantikari pongoddam[बदल]

Azad Gomantak Dal, ek krantikaricho pongodd hannem Purtugezanchea nitt kariacheo hikmotincher zoit vhorunk soput ghetlo. Azad Gomantak Dal hachi sthapnni Vishwanath Lawande, Narayan Hari Naik, Dattatraya Deshpande, Prabhakar Sinari zanchea sangata her tache mitr asle tannim eksarke Purtugez kvartelancher ani Benkencher akromonn kelem. Soglleank 28–29 vorsanchi bondkhonn Purtugezache niailoien dili. Narayan Naik ani Dattatraya Deshpande hankam 14 vorsanchi bondkhonn Portugal ani Angolachea bondkhonnint favo zali. Punn tankam Goenchi soddvonn zatoch soddle. Vishwanath Lawande ani Prabhakar Sinari he bondkhonnintle pollun gele ani tanchi xostranchi loddai Purtugez rajvottkecher vhodd loskorachem boll vosnnuke add zhuzpak keli zachi mukhealoi Goenchea-Bharotache ximer Vazarem ghoddli. Azad Gomantak Dal hannim iesiesvontponni pulis ani karkhanneanacher, kvartelancher, ieradarancher dhaddi ghatleo, addsak ravun soinacher ochkit ximer ghureo ghatleo ani darugulleacho santtho foddun uddoilo. Tannim Goencho ek bhag zaka "Dadra and Nagar Haveli" mhonn pachartat to soinachea kruten mekllo kelo. Soineacho fuddari Vishwanath Lawande hannem apnnak Dadra ani Nagarhavelicho Rajeopal ghoxit kelo. Punn, hea pongddachea krantikarichea manddnnek, Purtugezan aplem soineachem boll vaddoilem ani hem korunk tannim gore ani Afriki foujeche xipai hem bondd damun dovrunk haddle.

Goa Liberation Army, zacho Shivajirao Desai ek Bharoti foujecho odhikari aslo. Tannem 1950ant sthapnni keli, tannem Purtugezancho vosnnukvadak avhan divnk krantikari ievzonneo ani nitt kruti vaprunk tharailem. Tannem Sesa Goachi Sonshi min foddun uddoilem jea vorvim tatpurtem minacho vavr sthogit zavnk pavlo. Goa Liberation Army haka zaiteach her foddpachem ani ghuri ghalpachem xroi favo zata ani tannem ek mhotvachi bhumika Bharoti ghuriecher vellar pul nas korpa virudh vanchovpachi keli.[5]

1953 fuddem Soteagrohache chollvollichi khorai[बदल]

1953 vorsa, Tristão de Bragança Cunha hannem abar vosnnuke add aslole pongodd manddavollir ghalunk Goa Action Committee ghoddli je svotontrponnim Mumboint vavurtale. Mumbointi Goenkar ani on-Goenkar hannim hea zhuzant aplo ekvott dakhovnk Soteagroh kelo.

Goeant, vosnnuke add don pongodd asle zantunt kherit vosnnuke add hikmoti asleo. National Congress Goa hi xanticheo soteagroh heo hikmoti vaportali, ani Azad Gomantak Dal krantikari pod’dhoti vapor kortali. Agostache 15ver 1954, ek vhodd soteagroh korpant ailo, punn ohinvsecho adneabhongacho vapor korunui, Purtugez zallvondaramni marpett kelo ani zaiteach bhagidarank ottok kele.[5] P.D. Gaitonde haka Purtugez vosnnukvada add sobhemazar nidorxonna korta mhonn ottok kelo.

Eka vorsa uprant, anik nidorxonna teach tarkher korpant ailim. Jon Songh fuddari, Karnataka Kesari Jagannathrao Joshi, hannem 3,000 nidorxokam sangata zantunt bailo, bhurgim ani Mharaxttrantle Bharoti asle tanchem fuddariponn korun Goenche ximer gele. Surokxa dollamni nidorxokancher latthi vaporli ani soteagrohcher far pettoile, zantunt zaiteach lokak moronn ievn xemboramni zokhmi zale.[5]

Purtugal atam NATO cho vangddi aslolean, Bharoti sorkar hea ghoddnnek mumkho ravlo. NATO chea vangddi desancho ek koblat asli jea vorvim khoinchea ghoddnnent khoincheai desak bhailem akromonn zait zalear tannim eka mekak surokxit korunk zai aslem. Zorui NATOchi koblar vosnnukank lagu zai nasli, Purtugalan tanchea doreapoltoddcheo hitsombondh vosnnuko nasun teo Portugal desacheo purai bhag asat mhonn agro kelo. Hea khatir, NATOchem ghusop tallunk, Bharot sorkarachean Purtugalache soteagrohachea nixedachea kariache zapek zobab divnk ghoddunk na.

1954vorsa, Goa Vimochan Sahayak Samiti (All-Party Goa Liberation Committee), ghoddpant aili zachi mokh adneabhongachi mohim chalu dovorpachi ani soteagrohank duddvancho ani rajki mozot divnk asli. Praja Socialist Party hanche Mharaxttr ani Gujrat pongodd hannim soddvonnechea somitik mozot keli ani svotontr Goeank Mharaxttrant vilin korpak protsahon dilem. Soddvonnechi somiti ani Praja Socialist Party hannim sangatan zaitech soteagroh 1954–55 aiojit kele.

Purtugez sorkaran zaiteach ontoraxttrio bollank ulo marun Bharot sorkar Purtugezachea zageanchi probhutv add vavurta mhonn tokrar keli kiteak soteagrohani Purtugezanchea Goenchi xim uploli. Nehruk tea khatri dobav haddlo jea vorvim Bharotan soteagrohak maniotai dili na.

Nehru'chem soteagroh nakarpak lagun svotontraichea chollvollik mar boslo. Nehrucho soteagrohank palov naslolean, eka soteagrohean Goenchi xim Terekhol kotta lagim up’pachea kamank bhov thoddeancho palov mell’llo. Zorui bhov thodde lok asle, ek dhaktto zomo Goenchi xim upun Terekhol kottant ratik pennem korunk pavlo.

Thoddea soteagrohank soddlear, ani All-Goa Political Party Committeechem kario pollelear, toxench raxttrio Bharoti sorkaracho palov naslolean, vosnnuke add chollvollichi goti dhilavli. Svotontraichem kario viroll aslem ani bhov thodde he chollvollint misoll zavnk itsa dakhoitale. Junhache 18ver 1954 vorsa, soteagrohi Goeant bhitor sorle ani Bharotacho bavtto uboilo, punn nidorxonna korpi ani dubhavi bhuzvonnkarank ottok korpant aili ani vosnnuke add kariakorte Dr. Gaitonde ani Shriyut Deshpande hankam Purtugalak toddipar kele.[7]

Dadra ani Nagar Haveli hanchem samilikoronn[बदल]

Julhache 21ver 1954, Goenkaranchea United Front (zachem fuddariponn Francis Mascarenhas hannem choloilem) hannem Purtugezank aplo vosnnukecho Dadra prodes zo ek sorvbhonvtim zomin aslolo zago Nagar Havelichea ximer aslo; fattim ghevnk boll kelem, National Movement Liberation Organisation (NMLO) hacho ek pongodd Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh krantikari pongodd ani Azad Gomantak Dal, hannim Nagar Haveli hacher Julhache 28ver 1954, ani Agostache 2 rer iesiesponnim tabo ghetlo.[13] Zorui iesvontponnim he zage tabeant ghetle, Bharotan te zage rokhddech Songh Prodesant vilin korunk nant. Thoddo kall teo de facto svotontr des koxe asle zancho karbhar Svotontr Dadra ani Nagar Havelichi Varishta Panchayat choloitali.

Dadra ani Nagar Haveli hachem iesvont samilikoronn, xellmoddea Goenchea vosnnuke add chollvollik novean zolm divnk ani protsohan divnk pavlem. Agostache 15ver 1954, xemboramni lokamni Purtugezachea Goencheo ximo hupleo zorui Bharoti sorkaracho hukum soteagrohan bhag ghena zavnk mona kelolem. Purtugezamni haka aplo zobab sabar zonnak ghaiall korun ani zaiteank jive marunk portipall kelo.[7]

Purtugezamni Soteagroheank hech porim sobondh 1955 vorsa portipall kelo. Tannim he chollvollik vaddtto palov asa tem pollovn tancheo ximo bond keleo. 1955 vorsa meren Bharoti sorkaran ek nivoll dhoronn toiar kelem zannem vosnnuke add chollvollik palov dilo. 1955 ani 1961 vorsa modem, ho Purtugez vosnnukvadachi rajvott sompovnk, so rajki pokx ghoddpant aile Hea pokxam modem Azad Gomantak Dal, Rancour Patriota, United Front of Goans, Goan People's Party, Goa Liberation Army ani Quit Goa Organisation hancho aspav aslo.

Purtugez mudom ontoraxttrio somazak goirsomoz korta, Goenkarank Luso-Bharoti vo Purtugez mhonn pacharun oxem zaitea Goenkarank dislem. P.D. Gaitondechi bonddkhonnintlean suttka zatoch, P.D. Gaitonden hea vicharak avhan korun sabar ontoraxttrio bhaxonna kelim. Vaddtto palov ontoraxttrio somaza koddlean toxench Purtugez Afriki vosnnukam koddlean mellun, Bharoti sorkarachea dhoronn odik koddok zavnk pavlem.

1961 vorsa, Goeank Bharotant zoddunk zai "ek xantin na tor bollan" Oxem Bharotan sanglem. Agostant 1961, Bharotan soineachi toiari keli ani Nehruchea Bharot atam Goenchea poristhiticher ogi ravchona, sangnnea uprant Dezembrache 1ler 1961, Bharoti soin Goenchea ximer ubem ravlem.

Goenchem samilikoronn[बदल]

Purtugezam kodde choturaiechi chalik upies ietoch, Nehrun Bharoti Foujek Goeank forsan ghevpak hukum dilo. Eka soineachea karian jem 18 ani 19 Dezembr 1961 vorsa korpant ailem, Bharoti foujen Goeank aplea tabean ghetlem zaka bhov thoddo virodh aslo. Purtugez Bharotachea Rajeopalan ek xoronnachem kagod soi kelem.[5]

Uprantleo ghoddnneo[बदल]

Major General Kunhiraman Palat Candeth haka Goencho Rajeopal nempant ailo jem pod poilem Brittix sorkaran 1934 vorsa poilem rochlolem. 1963 vorsa, Bharotachea Sonsoden Bharotachea Ghottnechi 12vi durusti kaido pas kelo, ani upcharikponnim tabeant ghetlole zage Bharotachea Songhrajeant misoll kele.[5] Goem, Damanv ani Div Songh Prodes zale. Dadra ani Nagar Haveli, je adim Estado da India hache asle, punn 1954 ani 1961 vorsam modem svotontr, te kherit Songh Prodes zale.

1962 vorsachea Outubrant, Ponchaiot venchnnuko Goeant ghevpant aileo zachea uprant Dezembr 1962 vorsa Vidhan Sobhecheo. Janerache 16ver 1967 vorsa ek lokmot ghevpant ailem zantunt Goenchea lokamni Mharaxttrant vilin zavpa virudh mot dilem. Purtugalan fokot 1974 vorsa Goenchi odhikarprapti Bharot Songhachi manun ghetli. 1987 vorsa, Goeank, Damanv ani Diu koddlean vegllim korun ek purnnponni vegllo prant kelo. Damanv ani Div ek novo songh prodes koso chalu urlo.[5]

Thambonaslolo lokacho lott Bharotachea her zageantlo Goeam ieta dekhun osmitaiek ani sonskrutaieek dhoko bospachi. thollavea lokak bhirant poddlea. Goeank Vegllo Dorzo divpak vaddtti magnni Bharot sorkarak asa jea vorvim sorkarachean stholantoracher tabo dovrunk zatolo ani aplo zago on-Goenkarank divpacho thambovnk zatolem.

Filmam[बदल]

Sat Hindustani (bhaxantor: Sat Bharoti) ek 1969 vorsantlem film jem Khwaja Ahmad Abbas hannem borovn digdorxit kelam. Hea filmant sat Bharoteank Purtugezantlea vosnnukvadachea rajvottkentle Goeank soddoitat tem dakhoitat.

Chitr Prodorxon[बदल]

Henvui polloi[बदल]

Sondorbh[बदल]

  1. "Liberation of Goa". Retrieved 2009-06-01. The struggle for Goa’s liberty was two fold – from within Goa and from the outside Goa – which was conducted by the Indian Government.
  2. "History Of Goa – Goa's Past". Retrieved 2009-06-01. The success of the post independence Goans struggle for freedom from Portugal owed as much to the efforts of the Indian Government who cut off diplomatic ties with Portugal as to the work of freedom fighters ...
  3. "Liberation of Goa". Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 1 June 2009.
  4. Amelia Thomas (2009). Goa and Mumbai. Lonely Planet. pp. 45. ISBN 978-1-74104-894-0.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 Harding, Paul (2003). Lonely Planet. Lonely Planet. p. 224. ISBN 978-1-74059-139-3.
  6. Janaka Perera, Goa's Liberation and Sri Lanka's Crisis, Asian Tribune, 18 December 2006 [1]
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 Sakshena, R.N. (1 June 2003). Goa: Into the Mainstream. Abhinav Publications. ISBN 978-81-7017-005-1. Retrieved 1 April 2014.
  8. Teotonio R. de Souza, "The Church in Goa: Giving to Caesar What is Caesar's?" para 5 "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2 April 2012. Retrieved 9 November 2009.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 http://www.colaco.net/1/leitaoDrJuliao.htm
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 http://www.heraldgoa.in/Goa/The-forgotten-history-of-18th-June/89901.html
  11. Professor Froilano de Mello, MD (1887–1955): A short biography of his life and achievements सांचो:Webarchive – Goacom.com
  12. Leitao, Lino (23 December 2005). "BLOOD, NEMESIS AND MISREADING QUITE WHAT MAKES GOAN SOCIETY TICK by Ben Antao, review by Lino Leitao". Retrieved 2009-05-23.
  13. P S Lele, Dadra and Nagar Haveli: past and present, Published by Usha P. Lele, 1987,
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